A General-Purpose Taxonomy of Computer-Augmented Sports Systems

A General-Purpose Taxonomy of Computer-Augmented Sports Systems

Sean Reilly (Trinity College, Ireland), Peter Barron (Trinity College, Ireland), Vinny Cahill (Trinity College, Ireland), Kieran Moran (Dublin City University, Ireland) and Mads Haahr (Trinity College, Ireland)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-406-4.ch002
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The area of computer-augmented sports is large and complex and spans several disciplines. This chapter presents a general-purpose taxonomy of computer-augmented sports systems, which is intended to assist researchers and designers working in this domain. Allowing systems to be classified with regard to form as well as function, the taxonomy is intended to have several uses, including serving as a clear map to aid in the understanding of the domain and as a tool to help researchers analyse the state-of-the-art by characteristics of systems. The taxonomy also offers a common vocabulary to the multidisciplinary teams that work in computer-augmented sports and can be used to identify sparsely populated regions of the domain as promising areas for future research. The authors present and demonstrate the use of the taxonomy using four example systems selected from an extensive review.
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The use of technology in sport has a range of applications, including training, refereeing and injury prevention. While the tradition of using technology for sport is long-standing (e.g., electric detection systems for fencing), recent advances in mobile and sensor technologies have given rise to a considerable range of sports systems that use the new technologies in interesting ways. The domain of technology-augmented sport systems has therefore increased considerably in complexity, not only with regards to the form of the solutions but also in respect to their functions and scope. While the new developments are exciting for developers and researchers working in the field, it takes a considerable amount of work to understand the domain as its complexity grows.

Taxonomies are used to organise and classify objects in complex domains. A taxonomy familiar to most people is the Linnaean Taxonomy devised by 18th century botanist Carl Linnaeus, which is used to classify living things. The taxonomy as a scientific endeavour has since been used outside biology, for example in the educational field. In the field of computer science, taxonomies are used for a variety of purposes, including aiding in the understanding of complex domains (Meier, 2005) and highlighting design and engineering differences of state-of-the-art systems within a particular domain (Yu, 2005). A hierarchical taxonomy, such as the one presented in this chapter, is a tree-structure of classifications for a given set of objects. At the top of the structure is a single classification, usually called the root, which is applicable to all objects. Nodes below the root represent more specific classifications, which apply to subsets of the total set of objects.

In general, the development of a taxonomy is often a useful technique to help deal with a complex domain. By offering a framework and vocabulary to reason about the domain, a good taxonomy can help reduce the complexity of a large domain with many interacting concerns into a number of well-defined concerns that can be dealt with more easily. The creation of a taxonomy for a given domain is often connected with a maturation of that domain.

This chapter presents a general-purpose taxonomy of computer-augmented sports systems. The taxonomy is based on the findings from an extensive review of the domain of sensor-augmented sports systems in which twenty systems were identified and analysed in detail, incorporating both commercial applications and research projects. To present the taxonomy we employ a number of example systems from the survey to illustrate categories and give an indication of the number of systems that belong to the different categories. As for any taxonomy, the overall purpose of ours is of course to aid in understanding a complex domain. Specifically, our taxonomy is intended to have the following purposes:

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Graham Cuskelly
Nigel Pope, Kerri-Ann L. Kuhn, John J.H. Forster
Chapter 1
John J.H. Forster
One of the major forces shaping modern sport is the application of digital technology. This is transforming the mass consumption, distribution... Sample PDF
Digital Technologies and the Intensification of Economic and Organisational Mechanisms in Commercial Sport
Chapter 2
Sean Reilly, Peter Barron, Vinny Cahill, Kieran Moran, Mads Haahr
The area of computer-augmented sports is large and complex and spans several disciplines. This chapter presents a general-purpose taxonomy of... Sample PDF
A General-Purpose Taxonomy of Computer-Augmented Sports Systems
Chapter 3
Veljko Potkonjak, Miomir Vukobratovic, Kalman Babkovic, Branislav Borovac
This chapter relates biomechanics to robotics. The mathematical models are derived to cover the kinematics and dynamics of virtually any motion of a... Sample PDF
Dynamics and Simulation of General Human and Humanoid Motion in Sports
Chapter 4
Brendan Burkett
Monitoring of player activity within a competition is currently a reality within some high performance sporting teams, and the demand and level of... Sample PDF
Technologies for Monitoring Human Player Activity Within a Competition
Chapter 5
Chee Kwang Quah, Michael Koh, Alex Ong, Hock Soon Seah, Andre Gagalowicz
Through the advancement of electronics technologies, human motion analysis applications span many domains. Existing commercially available magnetic... Sample PDF
Video-Based Motion Capture for Measuring Human Movement
Chapter 6
Amin Ahmadi, David D. Rowlands, Daniel A. James
Tennis is a popular game played and viewed by millions of people around the world. There is a large impetus for players to improve their game and... Sample PDF
Technology to Monitor and Enhance the Performance of a Tennis Player
Chapter 7
Daniel A. James, Andrew Busch, Yuji Ohgi
The testing and monitoring of elite athletes in their natural training and performance environment is a relatively new area of development that has... Sample PDF
Quantitative Assessment of Physical Activity Using Inertial Sensors
Chapter 8
Volker Wulf, Florian ‘Floyd’ Mueller, Eckehard F. Moritz, Gunnar Stevens, Martin R. Gibbs
Augmenting existing sports experiences with computing technology is increasingly gaining attention due to its potential for performance enhancement.... Sample PDF
Computer Supported Collaborative Sports: An Emerging Paradigm
Chapter 9
Florian ‘Floyd’ Mueller
Recent advances in computing technology have contributed to a new trend that merges digital gaming with physical sports activities and combines the... Sample PDF
Digital Sport: Merging Gaming with Sports to Enhance Physical Activities Such as Jogging
Chapter 10
Lauren Silberman
Just at the moment when gaming has achieved broad cultural acceptance, a new way of using commercial sport video games is emerging, which adds a new... Sample PDF
Double Play: How Video Games Mediate Physical Performance for Elite Athletes
Chapter 11
Donald P. Roy, Benjamin D. Goss
The explosion of fantasy sports and the dearth of research about it create a need for investigation in this relatively new form of sport... Sample PDF
A League of Our Own: Empowerment of Sport Consumers Through Fantasy Sports Participation
Chapter 12
Jean-Pierre Dussault, Michael Greenspan, Jean-François Landry, Will Leckie, Marc Godard, Joseph Lam
We introduce pool and its variants, and describe the challenges of computationally simulating the game to create a robot capable of selecting and... Sample PDF
Computational and Robotic Pool
Chapter 13
Scott Bingley, Stephen Burgess
Sport plays a major part in the Australian psyche with millions of people participating every year. However organised sport at the local or social... Sample PDF
A Framework for the Adoption of the Internet in Local Sporting Bodies: A Local Sporting Association Example
Chapter 14
Anthony K. Kerr
Globalisation and advances in communications technology have greatly expanded the potential marketplace for professional teams, especially for those... Sample PDF
Online Questionnaires and Interviews as a Successful Tool to Explore Foreign Sports Fandom
Chapter 15
Gaoqi He, Zhigeng Pan, Weimin Pan, Jianfeng Liu
Virtual reality and the Olympic Games Museum are used to create a virtual digital Olympic museum (VDOM). This is available solely through the medium... Sample PDF
Virtual Digital Olympic Museum
Chapter 16
Kerri-Ann L. Kuhn
A multi-billion dollar industry, electronic games have been experiencing strong and rapid growth in recent times. The world of games is not only... Sample PDF
The Market Structure and Characteristics of Electronic Games
Chapter 17
Beth A. Cianfrone, James J. Zhang
This chapter introduces the new and unique sport promotional format of sport video game sponsorships and in-game advertising. Information on the... Sample PDF
Sport Video Game Sponsorships and In-Game Advertising
Chapter 18
Mark Lee, Rajendra Mulye, Constantino Stavros
This chapter reports a recent research study involving a sports video game which sought to provide an overview on the use of in-game advertising... Sample PDF
In-Game Advertising: Effectiveness and Consumer Attitudes
Chapter 19
Monica D. Hernandez, Sindy Chapa
The authors’ study examined factors affecting Mexican adolescent’s memory of brand placements contained in advergames. Specifically, two concerns... Sample PDF
The Effect of Arousal on Adolescent's Short-Term Memory of Brand Placements in Sports Advergames
Chapter 20
Ellen L. Bloxsome, Nigel K. Ll. Pope
This chapter presents marketers, sporting management and sports organizations with a technique for analyzing consumer schemas associated with... Sample PDF
Schemas of Disrepute: Digital Damage to the Code
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