Geometric Modelling and Computer-Aided Design

Geometric Modelling and Computer-Aided Design

Xun Xu (University of Auckland, NZ)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-714-0.ch001
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Abstract

One of the key activities in any product design process is to develop a geometric model of the product from the conceptual ideas, which can then be augmented with further engineering information pertaining to the application area. For example, the geometric model of a design may be developed to include material and manufacturing information that can later be used in computer-aided process planning and manufacturing (CAPP/CAM) activities. A geometric model is also a must for any engineering analysis, such as finite elopement analysis (FEA). In mathematic terms, geometric modelling is concerned with defining geometric objects using computational geometry, which is often, represented through computer software or rather a geometric modelling kernel. Geometry may be defined with the help of a wire-frame model, surface model, or solid model. Geometric modelling has now become an integral part of any computer-aided design (CAD) system. In this chapter, various geometric modelling approaches, such as wire-frame, surface, and solid modelling will be discussed. Basic computational geometric methods for defining simple entities such as curves, surfaces, and solids are given. Concepts of parametric, variational, history-based, and history-free CAD systems are explained. These topics are discussed in this opening chapter because (a) CAD was the very first computer-aided technologies developed and (b) its related techniques and methods have been pervasive in the other related subjects like computer-aided manufacturing. This chapter only discusses CAD systems from the application point of view; CAD data formats and data exchange issues are covered in the second chapter.
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Geometric Modelling Approaches

The development of geometric modelling is coupled with three departments of sciences and technologies. They are computer graphics techniques, three-dimensional (3D) geometric representation schemes and computer hardware advances. The research started in the 1960’s. The basic geometric modelling approaches used in today’s CAD/CAM systems are wire-frame, surface and solid modelling. In the following sections, a basic account of these approaches to geometric modelling is presented.

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Dedication
Table of Contents
Foreword
A.Y.C. Nee
Acknowledgment
Xun Xu
Chapter 1
Xun Xu
One of the key activities in any product design process is to develop a geometric model of the product from the conceptual ideas, which can then be... Sample PDF
Geometric Modelling and Computer-Aided Design
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Chapter 2
Xun Xu
Today, more companies than ever before are involved in manufacturing various parts of their end products using different subcontractors, many of... Sample PDF
CAD Data Exhange and CAD Standards
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Chapter 3
Xun Xu
Products and their components are designed to perform certain functions. Design specifi- cations ensure the functionality aspects. The task in... Sample PDF
Computer-Aided Process Planning and Manufacturing
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Chapter 4
Feature Technology  (pages 75-89)
Xun Xu
Throughout the course of the development of CAD, CAPP, and CAM systems, unambiguous representation of a design’s geometry and topology remain an... Sample PDF
Feature Technology
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Chapter 5
Feature Recognition  (pages 90-108)
Xun Xu
Conventional CAD models only provide pure geometry and topology for mechanical designs such as vertices, edges, faces, simple primitives, and the... Sample PDF
Feature Recognition
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Chapter 6
Feature Interactions  (pages 109-125)
Xun Xu
Feature interaction tends to have a wide range of consequences and effects on a feature model and its applications. While these may often be... Sample PDF
Feature Interactions
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Chapter 7
Xun Xu
Integrated feature technology promotes a closer connection between design and manufacturing through features. When machining features are... Sample PDF
Integrated Feature Technolog
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Chapter 8
CNC Machine Tools  (pages 165-187)
Xun Xu
The introduction of CNC machines has radically changed the manufacturing industry. Curves are as easy to cut as straight lines, complex 3-D... Sample PDF
CNC Machine Tools
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Chapter 9
Program CNCs  (pages 188-229)
Xun Xu
A CNC machine can be programmed in different ways to machine a workpiece. In addition to creating the cutting program, many other factors also need... Sample PDF
Program CNCs
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Chapter 10
Xun Xu
Technologies concerning computer-aided design, process planning, manufacturing and numerical control, have matured to a point that commercialized... Sample PDF
Integration of CAD/CAPP/CAM/CNC
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Chapter 11
Xun Xu
The integration model (Model B) as discussed in the previous chapter makes use of exchangeable neutral data formats such as IGES (1980). Neutral... Sample PDF
Integration Based on STEP Standards
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Chapter 12
Xun Xu
Function blocks are an IEC (International Electro-technical Commission) standard for distributed industrial processes and control systems (IEC... Sample PDF
Function Block-Enabled Integration
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Chapter 13
Xun Xu
In order to prepare manufacturing companies to face increasingly frequent and unpredictable market changes with confidence, there is a recognized... Sample PDF
Development of an Integrated, Adaptable CNC System
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Chapter 14
Xun Xu
A logical step after CNC machining is inspection. With inspections, Closed-Loop Machining (CLM) can be realized to maximize the efficiency of a... Sample PDF
Integrating CAD/CAPP/CAM/CNC with Inspections
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Chapter 15
Xun Xu
Today, companies often have operations distributed around the world, and production facilities and designers are often in different locations.... Sample PDF
Internet-Based Integration
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Chapter 16
Xun Xu
Companies that have been practicing CAD, CAPP, CAM, and CNC integration have now realized that there is a need to operate in a much broader scope... Sample PDF
From CAD/CAPP/CAM/CNC to PDM, PLM and Beyond
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Chapter 17
Key Enabling Technologies  (pages 354-393)
Xun Xu
While computers have proven to be instrumental in the advancement of product design and manufacturing processes, the role that various technologies... Sample PDF
Key Enabling Technologies
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