Grid computing is becoming as essential part of different business analysis. In traditional business computing infrastructures data transfer occurs to and from computing resources at the network edges. On the other hand, most business activities are bound to space and location. The aim of this chapter is to describe the business use of geographic data (business intelligence) and Geographic Information System (GIS) grids. As conclusion business intelligence helps to improve productivity by giving users information they need when they need it most at the point of decision. Organizations that effectively use geographic information elements analyzing their risk portfolio and compliance activities can reduce costs and increase the clarity of their operations. Grid computing is an answer to the needs of efficient GIS aided analysis. When geographic data, grid computing and business information are combined, they create new possibilities to enhance and broaden the standpoints of already existing data within organizations.
The aim of this article is to describe the business use of GIS data and GIS grids. For the purposes of this article, grid computing is defined as dynamically matching jobs of certain computational requirements with available resources that meet those requirements. Furthermore, it is assumed that the computational resources are widely distributed across the enterprise; the resources are, in fact, composed of a large number of desktop (Foster et al., 2001).
Key Terms in this Chapter
SDI: Spatial Data Infrastructure or SDI is a framework of spatial data, metadata, users and tools that are interactively connected in order to use spatial data in an efficient and flexible way
Metadata: Metadata are data about data. An item of metadata may describe an individual datum, or content item, or a collection of data including multiple content items
BI-GIS: GIS systems added with technologies, applications, and practices for the collection, integration, analysis, and presentation of business information and also sometimes to the information itself. BI systems provide historical, current, and predictive views of business operations, most often using data that has been gathered into a data warehouse or a data mart and occasionally working from operational data
Spatial Information: Information including locational elements.
Middleware: Software that sits ‘in the middle’ between applications (e.g., a word processing program) working on different operating systems (Unix, Windows, z/OS, etc.). It is similar to the middle layer of a three-tier single system architecture, except it is stretched across multiple systems or applications. Examples include database systems, telecommunications software, transaction monitors and messaging-and-queuing software
GIS: A geographic information system (GIS), also known as a geographical information system or geospatial information system, is a system for capturing, storing, analyzing and managing data and associated attributes which are spatially referenced to the Earth. Grid Information Service (GIS) is a core component in the Grid software infrastructure
Databases (DBS): A system or software designed to manage a database, and run operations on the data requested by numerous clients. Typical examples of DBS use include accounting, human resources and customer support systems
API: Originally Advanced Programming Interface but now more commonly known by its near synonym, Application Programming Interface, is any defined inter-program interface
Hybrid System: Dynamical systems with interacting continuous-time dynamics (modeled by differential equations) and discrete-event dynamics (modeled by automata).
File System: A method for storing and organizing computer files and the data they contain to make it easy to find and access them.