One of the challenges as well as opportunities for the success of wireless communication in the 21st century is the standardization that, in a simplified term, defines how specific technologies are used in a particular wireless communication system. Standardization goes beyond a technical decision made by engineers. This chapter first examines the history and the status of standardization in wireless communications in the world. Global cooperation and competition among different standards are then examined. Finally, the chapter analyzes ITU’s efforts on the 3G standardization that aim to bring harmony among the world’s wireless communication developers and providers.