IT Governance: A Critical Review of the Literature

IT Governance: A Critical Review of the Literature

David Musson (Macquarie Graduate School of Management, Sydney, Australia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-008-0.ch003
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Abstract

This chapter reviews the IT governance literature. It proposes that there are three different concepts that are grouped together as IT governance. These concepts are IT governance as a framework or audit process, IT governance as IT decision-making and IT governance as a branch of corporate governance. It argues that the first of these concepts is not a senior management issue, but an aid to a business process and that the remaining two concepts are complementary. The chapter recommends that the term IT governance is seen as a crucial part of the board’s wider corporate governance task, and suggests that is concerning that the view of IT governance as IT decision-making rarely pays any attention to the role of the board in a crucial decision-making process. The chapter is intended to bring together the disparate views of IT governance so as to permit a broader view of this important subject.
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Introduction

Image Databases (IDBs) are a special kind of Spatial Databases where a large number of images are stored and queried. IDBs have a plethora of applications in modern life, for example in medical, multimedia, and educational applications. In the framework of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), digital images (raster data) may represent changes in cultivations, sunny areas, and the discrimination between urban environments and country sides.

Apart from the raster format, GIS data may be stored in vector format (points, line segments, polygons, etc.). Each of these data formats has certain advantages making a choice between them a challenge. Raster data leads to faster computing for several operations (e.g., overlays) and are well suited for remote sensing. On the other hand, they have a fixed resolution leading to limited detail. In this article, we focus on raster data (image databases) and their indexing techniques.

Since the start of the 1980s several structures for spatial objects have been proposed in the literature for efficient storage and retrieval of image collections. Based on these methods, many kinds of useful queries on image data may be processed efficiently. These include:

  • Queries about the content of additional properties (descriptive information) that have been embedded for each image (e.g., which images have been used in the book cover of children’s books?).

  • Queries about the characteristics/features of the images like color, texture, shape etc. (e.g., find the images that depict vivid blue sky.).

  • Queries for retrieving images with specified content (e.g., find the images that contain the sub-image of a specified chair.).

  • Queries by example or sketch (e.g., a sample image is chosen, or drawn by the user and images similar to this sample are sought.).

  • Structural queries (e.g., find the images that contain a number of specific objects in a specified arrangement.).

  • Image Joins (e.g., find the cultivation areas that reside in polluted atmosphere areas.).

  • Queries that combine regional data and other sorts of spatial data (e.g., find the cities represented by point data that reside within 5km from cotton cultivations.).

  • Temporal Queries on sequences of evolving images (e.g., find if there has been an increase in the regions of wheat cultivations in this prefecture during the last two years.).

The importance of image indexing and querying techniques led major Database Management Systems’ manufacturers to embed related extensions to the core engine of their products, (e.g., DB2 has embedded QBIC technology) (Flickner et al. 1995) and Oracle provides Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) based on Virage (Annamalai et al. 2000).

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Background

A digital image is a representation of a two-dimensional image as a finite set of digital values, called picture elements or pixels. In a binary image, each pixel can be either black, or white, while in a greyscale (color) image each pixel corresponds to a shade of gray (to a color), among a set of permitted greyscale (color) values.

Each image represents a scene containing objects and regions. An IDB is an organized collection of digital images aiming at the management and the efficient processing of queries on this image collection. There are numerous publications in the literature related to the processing of queries on image features like color (e.g., distribution of colors, dominant colors, and color moments), texture (the pattern of the image surface change, usually expressed by a combination of characteristics like coarseness, contrast, directionality, uniformity, regularity, density, frequency, etc.) and shape (the physical structure of objects, or the geometric shapes present in the image). In several of these publications (emerging from the image processing/computer vision community) the term indexing refers to the features corresponding to each image and to the algorithm used for computing the similarity between them (the algorithm often works by an exhaustive comparison with all the images present in the databases). In this article, indexing is used in the context of databases and corresponds to the access methods (data structures) used to speed up query processing.

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Wim Van Grembergen
Preface
Aileen Cater-Steel
Acknowledgment
Aileen Cater-Steel
Chapter 1
Sherrena Buckby, Peter Best, Jenny Stewart
This chapter introduces current and prior IT governance literature across five key focus areas being strategic alignment of business and IT systems... Sample PDF
The Current State of Information Technology Governance Literature
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Chapter 2
Junghoon Lee, Changjin Lee
Domestic and global companies are increasingly using information and communication technologies as a means of delivering their strategic visions and... Sample PDF
IT Governance-Based IT Strategy and Management: Literature Review and Future Research Directions
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Chapter 3
David Musson
This chapter reviews the IT governance literature. It proposes that there are three different concepts that are grouped together as IT governance.... Sample PDF
IT Governance: A Critical Review of the Literature
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Chapter 4
Jyotirmoyee Bhattacharjya, Vanessa Chang
This chapter introduces key IT governance concepts and industry standards and explores their adoption and implementation in the higher education... Sample PDF
Adoption and Implementation of IT Governance: Cases from Australian Higher Education
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Chapter 5
Lynne Gerke, Gail Ridley
This chapter examines the potential to use an audit program based on the Control Objectives for Information and related Technologies (CobiT)... Sample PDF
Tailoring CobiT for Public Sector IT Audit: An Australian Case Study
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Chapter 6
Tony C. Shan, Winnie W. Hua
This chapter defines a methodical approach, named Comprehensive Architecture Rationalization and Engineering (CARE), to effectively manage the... Sample PDF
Comprehensive Architecture Rationalization and Engineering
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Chapter 7
Junghoon Lee, Jungwoo Lee, Ja Young Lee
Research has recently begun to place greater emphasis on the strategic application of IT in seeking to integrate firms’ IT infrastructures and... Sample PDF
A Comparative Case Study of Three Korean Firms: Applying an IT Governance Framework
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Chapter 8
Breanna O’Donohue, Graeme Pye, Matthew J. Warren
This chapter focuses upon the Australian Standard for the Corporate Governance of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) AS8015 (Standards... Sample PDF
The Impact of ICT Governance within Australian Companies
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Chapter 9
Mark Toleman, Aileen Cater-Steel, Brian Kissell, Rob Chown, Michael Thompson
Acting upon the recommendations of a review of information and communications technology (ICT) governance and services at USQ, a major restructure... Sample PDF
Improving ICT Governance: A Radical Restructure Using CobiT and ITIL
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Chapter 10
Brian Cusack
Security is a subprocess that affects all processes within an organization structure. The control frameworks of CobiT and ITIL provide a mapping of... Sample PDF
Managing IT Security Relationships within Enterprise Control Frameworks
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Chapter 11
Michael A. Borth, Randy V. Bradley
This chapter discusses the overall importance of both corporate and IT governance, and demonstrates that IT governance is a very important... Sample PDF
Unexplored Linkages between Corporate Governance and IT Governance: An Evaluation and Call to Research
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Chapter 12
Alea Fairchild, Martin Smits, Piet Ribbers, Erik van Geel, Geert Snijder
This document summarizes the initial findings of the I-Fit research project that started in August 2006 as a joint activity of a regional ICT... Sample PDF
I-Fit: Optimizing the Fit between Business and IT
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Chapter 13
Tobias Kollmann, Matthias Häsel
This chapter articulates the knowledge and skills required by IT professionals in young Internet-based firms. Building on the general IT governance... Sample PDF
Competence of Information Technology Professionals in Internet-Based Ventures
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Chapter 14
G. Philip Rogers
This chapter assesses what role maturity models can play in enterprise IT governance. Frameworks that are well known in the IT industry, such as the... Sample PDF
The Role of Maturity Models in IT Governance: A Comparison of the Major Models and Their Potential Benefits to the Enterprise
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Chapter 15
Yael Dubinsky, Avi Yaeli, Yishai Feldman, Emmanuel Zarpas, Gil Nechushtai
Governance is the exercise of control and direction over a subject such as a society, an organization, processes, or artifacts, by using laws and... Sample PDF
Governance of Software Development: The Transition to Agile Scenario
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Chapter 16
Anne C. Rouse
This chapter considers the governance issues raised by the increasing use of external parties to supply IT resources (including packaged enterprise... Sample PDF
The Governance Implications When it is Outsourced
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Chapter 17
Muralidharan Ramakrishnan
This chapter is intended primarily for managers who are preparing to implement portfolio management concepts in an organization and students of IT... Sample PDF
IT Portfolio Management: A Pragmatic Approach to Implement IT Governance
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Chapter 18
Andrew Dowse, Edward Lewis
With the cost, complexity and risk associated with IT systems, the approach to IT governance and service management in many organizations is to... Sample PDF
Applying Organizational Theories to Realize Adaptive IT Governance and Service Management
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Chapter 19
Jon Iden
This chapter presents and analyzes a real life ITIL project, and it is based on a longitudinal case study. The purpose is to illustrate how the ITIL... Sample PDF
Implementing IT Service Management: Lessons Learned from a University IT Department
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Chapter 20
Neil McBride
This chapter describes a suggested model for developing a service strategy within IT services. It considers the context, the organization of IT... Sample PDF
A Model for IT Service Strategy
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Chapter 21
Manuel Mora, Ovsei Gelman, Rory O’Connor, Francisco Alvarez, Jorge Macías-Luévano
This chapter develops a descriptive-conceptual overview of the main models and standards of processes formulated in the systems engineering (SE)... Sample PDF
An Overview of Models and Standards of Processes in the SE, SwE, and IS Disciplines
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Chapter 22
Claus-Peter Praeg, Dieter Spath
This chapter introduces an IT-Service management framework for the use of quality management concepts in the context of the life cycle phases of... Sample PDF
Perspectives of IT-Service Quality Management: A Concept for Life Cycle Based Quality Management of IT-Services
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Chapter 23
Chee Ing Tiong, Aileen Cater-Steel, Wui-Gee Tan
This study reviews literature related to financial metrics that organizations could use in measuring the return on investment from their adoption of... Sample PDF
Measuring Return on Investment from Implementing ITIL: A Review of the Literature
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Chapter 24
Dirk Malzahn
This chapter describes how models for software development and service delivery can be integrated into a common approach to reach an integrated... Sample PDF
Integrated Product Life Cycle Management for Software: CMMI1, SPICE, and ISO/IEC 20000
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