Grid Computing: Combating Global Terrorism with the World Wide Grid

Grid Computing: Combating Global Terrorism with the World Wide Grid

Gokop Goteng (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia), Ashutosh Tiwari (Cranfield University, UK) and Rajkumar Roy (Cranfield University, UK)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-184-1.ch027
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Abstract

The emerging grid technology provides a secured platform for multidisciplinary experts in the security intelligence profession to collaborate and fight global terrorism. This chapter developed grid architecture and implementation strategy on how to connect the dots between security agents such as the CIA, FBI, police, custom officers and transport industry to share data and information on terrorists and their movements. The major grid components that featured in the architecture are the grid security portal, data grid, computational grid, semantic grid and collaboratory. The challenges of implementing this architecture are conflicting laws, cooperation among governments, and information on terrorist’s network and interoperability problem.
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Introduction

Terrorism can be defined as the use of violence to cause harm, large-scale destruction and fear in order to force change in societal behaviour or to force a society to acquiesce to the goals of the terrorist(s) (Garrison, 2007). Another definition by Ruby (2002) is that terrorism is politically motivated violence perpetrated in a clandestine manner against non-combatants in order to create a fear state of mind in an audience different from the victims. From these definitions, the September 11th attack can be seen as a way of sending dangerous signals to the U.S. government to change its policies against some interest groups rather than the real victims of the attack.

Terrorism dates back as far as 2000 years ago. Some of the early terrorist attacks were carried by the Jewish resistant group known as Sicarii-Zealots (AD 66-72) whose targets are the Romans in Judea. Others are the reign of terror in France (1793-1794), the Anarchists in Europe (1871-1914), the Soviet Revolution (1917), the Irish Rebellion (1919-1921) and Terrorism in the Middle-East and Islamic Fundamentalism (1960s-date). However, the sophistication, targets, victims, perpetrators, causes and justifications offered by terrorists and their collaborators have changed significantly over the years.

Never in the history of the world had terrorism received attention as in the 21st Century. Terrorists have attacked cities like London, Madrid, Moscow, World Trade Centre, Pentagon and Mumbai. These attacks usually witnessed mass wanton destruction of lives and properties with devastating and lasting psychological, socio-political and economic consequences. Very recently, a major terrorist attack was exposed and stopped at Heathrow Airport in London on August 10, 2006 due to efficient, pervasive, secured, coordinated and timely distributed access to information by the intelligence personnel leading to the arrest of about 24 national and international suspects. Another two attempts were thwarted in London and Glasgow early this year again. It appears that timely distributed information about terrorists’ activities is a great strategy in combating the menace of terrorism. This is where grid computing can play a great role with its pervasive, secured, dynamic and distributed data and information services. Grid computing connects islands of information sources and link different agents around the world to collaborate and respond immediately to disasters (Assuncao and Buyya, 2005). This form of collaboration is possible through efficient high volumes of data processing using data clustering techniques for counter-terrorism (Rajasekaran et al., 2005).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Portal: A uniform entry point for all grid users to access grid resources and services.

Grid Computing: Future generation distributed computational infrastructure that enables secure, dependable, scalable and dynamic collaboration among virtual organisations.

Collaboration: Sharing of security information about terrorists and their networks among countries and security agencies to fight terrorism.

Autonomic Computing: A grand challenge computing paradigm that enables computing systems and its interacting components to manage themselves or adapt to situations without the interference of a human systems administrator.

Forensic Technology: A technology used for investigation and identification of facts surrounding a crime, sometimes using carbon related chemicals around the crime scene.

Semantic Grid: Knowledge-based grid computing which gives meaning to actions and components of resources based on the rules and language of the profession the resources are used for.

Terrorism: The act of causing fear on the society by using force or violence to harm or destroy lives and properties by persons or group of persons for certain political or religious reasons so that authorities can succumb to some demands.

Service Standard: Grid functionalities such as reliable file transfer (RFT), resource management (GRAM), security of resources through authentication and authorisation (GSI) and other customised functionalities are called grid services.

Biometric Information: Unique biological traits of human beings such as finger print and iris for unique identification of terrorists.

Ubiquitous Computing: A grand challenge computing paradigm that enables pervasive distribution of computational resources for effective collaboration.

Resource Grid: Resources are data, information, software, hardware, sensors and instruments which are shared by grid users.

World Wide Grid: Mechanism for linking islands of global grid resources for collaboration.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Ruth E. Shaw
Preface
Emmanuel Udoh, Frank Zhigang Wang
Acknowledgment
Emmanuel Udoh
Chapter 1
Emmanuel Udoh, Frank Zhigang Wang, Vineet R. Khare
This chapter presents a historical record of the advent of Grid with a recourse to some basic definitions commonly accepted by most researchers. It... Sample PDF
Overview of Grid Computing
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Chapter 2
Eric Aubanel
The problem of load balancing parallel applications is particularly challenging on computational grids, since the characteristics of both the... Sample PDF
Resource-Aware Load Balancing of Parallel Applications
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Chapter 3
Enis Afgan, Purushotham Bangalore
Grid computing has emerged as the next generation computing platform. Because of the resource heterogeneity that exists in the grid environment... Sample PDF
Assisting Efficient Job Planning and Scheduling in the Grid
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Chapter 4
Kuo-Chan Huang, Po-Chi Shih, Yeh-Ching Chung
Most current grid environments are established through collaboration among a group of participating sites which volunteer to provide free computing... Sample PDF
Effective Resource Allocation and Job Scheduling Mechanisms for Load Sharing in a Computational Grid
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Chapter 5
Tevfik Kosar
As the data requirements of scientific distributed applications increase, the access to remote data becomes the main performance bottleneck for... Sample PDF
Data-Aware Distributed Batch Scheduling
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Chapter 6
Gianni Pucciani, Flavia Donno, Andrea Domenici, Heinz Stockinger
Data replication is a well-known technique used in distributed systems in order to improve fault tolerance and make data access faster. Several... Sample PDF
Consistency of Replicated Datasets in Grid Computing
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Chapter 7
Ming Wu, Xian-He Sun
Rapid advancement of communication technology has changed the landscape of computing. New models of computing, such as business-on-demand, Web... Sample PDF
Quality of Service of Grid Computing
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Chapter 8
QoS in Grid Computing  (pages 75-83)
Zhihui Du, Zhili Cheng, Xiaoying Wang, Chuang Lin
This chapter first summarizes popular terms of QoS related concepts and technologies in grid computing, including SLA, End-to-End QoS Provision and... Sample PDF
QoS in Grid Computing
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Chapter 9
Kris Bubendorfer, Ben Palmer, Ian Welch
A Grid resource broker is the arbiter for access to a Grid’s computational resources and therefore its performance and functionality has a... Sample PDF
Trust and Privacy in Grid Resource Auctions
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Chapter 10
Sandro Fiore, Alessandro Negro, Salvatore Vadacca, Massimo Cafaro, Giovanni Aloisio, Roberto Barbera
Grid computing is an emerging and enabling technology allowing organizations to easily share, integrate and manage resources in a distributed... Sample PDF
An Architectural Overview of the GRelC Data Access Service
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Chapter 11
Man Wang, Zhihui Du, Zhili Cheng
Resource Management System (RMS), which manages the Grid resources and matches the applications’ requests to the proper resources, is one of the... Sample PDF
Adaptive Resource Management in Grid Environment
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Chapter 12
Vineet R. Khare, Frank Zhigang Wang
The need for a dynamic and scalable expansion of the grid infrastructure and resources and other scalability issues in terms of execution efficiency... Sample PDF
Bio-Inspired Grid Resource Management
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Chapter 13
Yuhui Deng, Frank Zhigang Wang, Na Helian
Storage Grid is a new model for deploying and managing the heterogeneous, dynamic, large-scale, and geographically distributed storage resources.... Sample PDF
Service Oriented Storage System Grid
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Chapter 14
Dominic Cherry, Maozhen Li, Man Qi
This chapter presents MediaGrid, a distributed storage system for archiving broadcast media contents. MediaGrid utilizes storage resources donated... Sample PDF
A Distributed Storage System for Archiving Broadcast Media Content
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Chapter 15
Maozhen Li, Man Qi, Bin Yu
The computational grid is rapidly evolving into a service-oriented computing infrastructure that facilitates resource sharing and large-scale... Sample PDF
Service Discovery with Rough Sets
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Chapter 16
Irfan Habib, Ashiq Anjum, Richard McClatchey
Due to some barriers to adoption we have not seen a proliferation of Grid Computing technologies throughout e-Science or other domains. This chapter... Sample PDF
On the Pervasive Adoption of Grid Technologies: A Grid Operating System
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Chapter 17
Kurt Vanmechelen, Jan Broeckhove, Wim Depoorter, Khalid Abdelkader
As grid computing technology moves further up the adoption curve, the issues of dealing with conflicting user requirements formulated by different... Sample PDF
Pricing Computational Resources in Grid Economies
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Chapter 18
Rosario M. Piro
Large, geographically distributed and heterogeneous computing infrastructures, such as the Grid, often span multiple organizations and... Sample PDF
Resource Usage Accounting in Grid Computing
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Chapter 19
Frans Arickx, Jan Broeckhove, Peter Hellinckx, David Dewolfs, Kurt Vanmechelen
Quantum structure or scattering calculations often belong to a class of computational problems involving the aggregation of a set of matrices... Sample PDF
Grid-Based Nuclear Physics Applications
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Chapter 20
Gabriel Aparicio, Fernando Blanco, Ignacio Blanquer, César Bonavides, Juan Luis Chaves, Miguel Embid, Álvaro Hernández
In the last years an increasing demand for Grid Infrastructures has resulted in several international collaborations. This is the case of the EELA... Sample PDF
Developing Biomedical Applications in the Framework of EELA
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Chapter 21
Gerald Schaefer, Roger Tait
Efficient approaches to computationally intensive image processing tasks are currently highly sought after. In this chapter, the authors show how a... Sample PDF
Distributed Image Processing on a Blackboard System
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Chapter 22
Daniele Andreotti, Armando Fella, Eleonora Luppi
The BaBar experiment uses data since 1999 in examining the violation of charge and parity (CP) symmetry in the field of high energy physics. This... Sample PDF
Simulated Events Production on the Grid for the BaBar Experiment
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Chapter 23
Diego Liberati
A framework is proposed that creates, uses, and communicates information, whose organizational dynamics allows performing a distributed cooperative... Sample PDF
A Framework for Semantic Grid in E-Science
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Chapter 24
Roberto Barbera, Valeria Ardizzone, Leandro Ciuffo
The Grid INFN virtual Laboratory for Dissemination Activities (GILDA) is a fully working Grid test-bed devoted to training and dissemination... Sample PDF
Grid INFN Virtual Laboratory for Dissemination Activities (GILDA)
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Chapter 25
Dirk Gorissen, Tom Dhaene, Piet Demeester, Jan Broeckhove
The simulation and optimization of complex systems is a very time consuming and computationally intensive task. Therefore, global surrogate modeling... Sample PDF
Grid Enabled Surrogate Modeling
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Chapter 26
Patrik Skogster
Grid computing is becoming as essential part of different business analysis. In traditional business computing infrastructures data transfer occurs... Sample PDF
GIS Grids and the Business Use of GIS Data
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Chapter 27
Gokop Goteng, Ashutosh Tiwari, Rajkumar Roy
The emerging grid technology provides a secured platform for multidisciplinary experts in the security intelligence profession to collaborate and... Sample PDF
Grid Computing: Combating Global Terrorism with the World Wide Grid
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Chapter 28
Salvatore Scifo
This chapter focuses on the efforts to design and develop a standard pure Java API to access the metadata service of the EGEE Grid middleware, and... Sample PDF
Accessing Grid Metadata through a Web Interface
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Chapter 29
Jyotsna Sharma
Efforts in Grid Computing, both in academia and industry, continue to grow rapidly worldwide for research, scientific and commercial purposes.... Sample PDF
Grid Computing Initiatives in India
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Chapter 30
Hai Jin, Li Qi, Jie Dai, Yaqin Luo
A grid system is usually composed of thousands of nodes which are broadly distributed in different virtual organizations. Owing to geographical... Sample PDF
Dynamic Maintenance in ChinaGrid Support Platform
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