Increased accountability for student outcomes among teachers led to an examination of the needs and motivations of 324 K-12 educators who participated in 6-week online professional development modules of study. This research was conducted through focus groups and an online survey. The most telling findings indicate four themes regarding teacher online professional development: learner expectations, learner support and access, incentives, and content. This project illuminates issues that arise in formal education online learning environments as we continue to discover how to best serve educators’ learning needs. This two step study uses surveys and focus groups to empirically identify critical factors in instructional design and implementation. It benefits from large samples and the application of knowledge derived from Group A experiences to Group B. Follow-up research of 944 participants at year 4 of the project provides additional insight into technology use and motivation.