Handhelds for Digital Libraries

Handhelds for Digital Libraries

Spyros Veronikis (Ionian University, Greece), Giannis Tsakonas (Ionian University, Greece) and Christos Papatheodorou (Ionian University, Greece)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-879-6.ch030
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Abstract

The present chapter introduces digital library services’ utilization through handheld devices, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and smartphones. It argues that handheld devices proliferation justifies the term digital library in terms of anywhere-anytime access, and retrieval and management of information. Furthermore, these devices constitute powerful information harvesting tools that help users enhance their interaction with information spaces, both of physical and digital form. The chapter presents the services that can be accessed by means of portable devices and analyzes the main sociotechnical issues that arise and influence user interaction. Factors that affect acceptance of these devices are discussed, and future trends are presented to outline the research landscape for the forthcoming years.
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Background

The term PDA was coined in 1992 by John Sculley for a handheld device that offered work organizing tools, like a calendar, scheduler, address book, memos, clock, and a calculator. The potential they introduced in information delivery was quickly recognized and soon these devices were utilized, mainly, by health sciences libraries (Jones, Rieger, Treadwell, & Gay, 2000; Rios, 2004; Smith, 2002). Meanwhile, bigger screens were made available and were able to depict colorful graphics. Computing power, memory, and storage capabilities increased, and data input methods, like handwriting and virtual keyboards, were implemented. Audio playback was made available and both size and weight reached the ideal measures. Wireless networks also evolved, making anywhere information delivery a reality. Moreover, smartphones appeared, providing telephony and other communication services like e-mail, three-way communications (conferencing), and Internet access.

Apart from the physical libraries, DL organizations also found the wireless connectivity features quite attractive. Handhelds could be used to access multimedia content on a 24/7 basis. They could also keep notes and other information for reference, or even be used as communication tools. During the last years many researchers have been studying issues that arise by the usage of such devices for information retrieval tasks. In early years of the current decade, several prototypes were implemented in various settings, such as James Madison University (McCabe, 2004), Oulu University, Finland (Aittola, Ryhänen, & Ojala, 2003), and Cornell University (Jones et al., 2000). Students from an informatics class in J.M. University used a PDA to view and edit patient records whereas students in the Oulu and Cornell universities used the PDAs to help them navigate in the university’s library, access the OPAC, locate books of their interest, communicate with other persons on the network (including library personnel), take notes, scan or photograph topics from the books retrieved, and transfer data on a personal storage area. Participants in the studies expressed enthusiasm for the ability to combine mobile information access with other activities such as writing or organizing materials. Map guidance to locate a book was preferred over traditional shelf classification. Even though the service was considered easier to use from a desktop terminal, the usage of a portable device in larger libraries was appreciated. However, as Jones et al. note (2000), “their enthusiasm declined significantly when either technology purchase or student fees where suggested” (p. 98).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Ubiquitous Computing: The idea of embedding computation into the environment by using everyday objects that enable people to interact with information-processing devices more naturally and casually than they currently do. The term was coined by Mark Weiser, chief scientist of Xerox PARC. Other terms include pervasive computing and calm technology.

Smartphone: Also known as hybrid, is any electronic handheld device that integrates the functionality of a mobile phone, personal digital assistant (PDA), or other information appliance. This is often achieved by putting “smart” capabilities, such as PDA functions, into a mobile phone. “Smart” functionality includes any additional interface, including a QWERTY board, a touch screen, or even just secure access to company mail

Mobile Computing: A term to describe a user’s ability to use technology from a nonfixed location, using battery powered, portable computing, and communication devices such as laptops, notebooks, palmtops, smartphones, and PDAs. Computing activity can take place locally, that is, the user can use a device to retrieve some information stored in it, or it can be connected wirelessly to another information/computing system with wireless LAN or wireless WAN technologies.

Human Computer Interaction: The study of the interaction between computers and their users. This interaction occurs at the user interface, which includes both software and hardware, for example, general purpose computer peripherals (i.e., disk drives, CD players, etc.) and large-scale mechanical systems, such as aircraft and power plants.

Usefulness: This is debatable. Some make the distinction between usability and usefulness. Although it is impossible to quantify the usefulness of a system, attempts have been made to measure its attainment in reference to system specifications and the extent of coverage of end users’ tasks supported by the system, but not on end user performance testing. Perceived usefulness expresses people’s intention to use (or not) a new technology to the extent that they believe it will help them perform their job better.

Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs): Handhelds that facilitate tools like a calendar, clock, calculator, address book, memos, and alarms. Newer models support multimedia playback, voice recording, e-book readers, e-mail, and Web access. There are also models that integrate global positioning system (GPS) and global system for mobile communications (GSM) modules for navigation and telephony, respectively.

Wireless Networks: The term refers to communication networks, whose interconnections between nodes are implemented without the use of wires, such as a computer network. Wireless communication networks are generally implemented with some type of remote information transmission system, consisting of base stations and client terminals that use radio waves.

Usability: ISO 9241-11 defines usability as “the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a specified context of use.” Usability of hypertext/Web is commonly measured using established usability dimensions covering these categories of usability defects, such as screen design, terminology and system information, system capabilities and user control, navigation, and completing tasks. Perceived usability expresses people’s belief to the extent that a system is not too hard to use, and the performance benefits are not outweighed by the effort of using it.

Complete Chapter List

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List of Reviewers
Table of Contents
Detailed Table of Contents
Foreword
Gary Gorman
Preface
Yin-Leng Theng, Schubert Foo, Dion Goh, Jin-Cheon Na
Acknowledgement
Chapter 1
Leonardo Candela, Donatella Castelli, Pasquale Pagano
This chapter introduces OpenDLib, a digital library service system developed at ISTI-CNR for easing the creation and management of digital... Sample PDF
OpenDLib: A Digital Library Service System
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Chapter 2
Mohammed Nasser Al-Suqri, Esther O.A. Fatuyi
Deliberate exploitation of natural resources and excessive use of environmentally abhorrent materials have resulted in environmental disruptions... Sample PDF
Digital Library Service System; Digital Library System; Document Model; Grid Computing; Grid Infrastructure; Institutional Repository; Service Oriented Architecture
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Chapter 3
Sarah-Jane Saravani
This chapter describes a learning object repository case study undertaken at the Waikato Institute of Technology, Hamilton, New Zealand, during 2005... Sample PDF
Access and Control; Digital Libraries; Information Ethics; Privacy; Security
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Chapter 4
Jian-hua Yeh, Shun-hong Sie, Chao-chen Chen
In this chapter, we describe X-system, a general digital library platform which is capable of handling large-scale digital contents with flexible... Sample PDF
Extensible Digital Library Service Platform
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Chapter 5
Juan C. Lavariega, Lorena G. Gomez, Martha Sordia-Salinas, David A. Garza-Salazar
This chapter presents the services and functionality that a personal digital library (PDL) system should provide. The chapter includes a reference... Sample PDF
Personal Digital Libraries
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Chapter 6
George Pyrounakis, Mara Nikolaidou
In the last years, a great number of digital library and digital repository systems have been developed by individual organizations, mostly... Sample PDF
Comparing Open Source Digital Library Software
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Chapter 7
Ian H. Witten, David Bainbridge
This chapter describes the evolution of the Greenstone digital library project through its first 10 years of development. It provides an overview of... Sample PDF
The Greenstone Digital Library Software
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Chapter 8
Yin-Leng Theng, Nyein Chan Lwin Lwin, Jin-Cheon Na, Schubert Foo, Dion Hoe-Lian Goh
This chapter addresses the issues of resource discovery in digital libraries (DLs) and the importance of knowledge organization tools in building... Sample PDF
Design and Development of a Taxonomy Generator: A Case Example for Greenstone
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Chapter 9
Schubert Foo, Yin-Leng Theng, Dion Hoe-Lian Goh, Jin-Cheon Na
Digital archives typically act as stand-alone digital libraries to support search and discovery by users to access its rich set of digitized... Sample PDF
From Digital Archives to Virtual Exhibitions
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Chapter 10
Carmen Galvez
This chapter presents the different standardization methods of terms at the two basic approaches of nonlinguistic and linguistic techniques, and... Sample PDF
Standardization of Terms Applying Finite-State Transducers (FST)
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Chapter 11
Fu Lee Wang, Christopher C. Yang
As more information becomes available online, information-overloading results. This problem can be resolved through the application of automatic... Sample PDF
Extracting the Essence: Automatic Text Summarization
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Chapter 12
Metadata Interoperability  (pages 122-130)
K. S. Chudamani, H. C. Nagarathna
Metadata is data about data. Metadata originated in the context of digital information in databases. This chapter looks at the various standards... Sample PDF
Metadata Interoperability
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Chapter 13
Payam M. Barnaghi, Wei Wang, Jayan C. Kurian
The Semantic Web is an extension to the current Web in which information is provided in machine-processable format. It allows interoperable data... Sample PDF
Semantic Association Analysis in Ontology-Based Information Retrieval
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Chapter 14
Gerald Schaefer
As image databases are growing, efficient and effective methods for managing such large collections are highly sought after. Content-based... Sample PDF
Effective and Efficient Browsing of Large Image Databases
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Chapter 15
Giovanni Semeraro, Pierpaolo Basile, Marco de Gemmis, Pasquale Lops
Exploring digital collections to find information relevant to a user’s interests is a challenging task. Information preferences vary greatly across... Sample PDF
User Profiles for Personalizing Digital Libraries
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Chapter 16
Shiyan Ou, Christopher S.G. Khoo, Dion Hoe-Lian Goh
This chapter describes various text summarization techniques and evaluation techniques that have been proposed in literature and discusses the... Sample PDF
Automatic Text Summarization in Digital Libraries
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Chapter 17
Wooil Kim, John H.L. Hansen
This chapter addresses a number of advances in formulating spoken document retrieval for the National Gallery of the Spoken Word (NGSW) and the... Sample PDF
Speechfind: Advances in Rich Content Based Spoken Document Retrieval
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Chapter 18
Sofia Stamou
This chapter introduces a personalized ranking function as a means of offering Web information seekers with search results that satisfy their... Sample PDF
Using Topic-Specific Ranks to Personalize Web Search
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Chapter 19
Irene Lourdi, Mara Nikolaidou
his chapter presents basic guidelines for maintaining digital cultural collections in order for them to be interoperable and easily retrievable from... Sample PDF
Guidelines for Developing Digital Cultural Collections
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Chapter 20
Neide Santos, Fernanda C.A. Campos, Regina M.M. Braga Villela
Nowadays, social, economical, cultural, and technological changes deeply stress the professional profiles. As a consequence, everyone needs to be... Sample PDF
Digital Libraries and Ontology
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Chapter 21
Svenja Hagenhoff, Björn Ortelbach, Lutz Seidenfaden
Information and communication technologies seem to bring new dynamics to the established, but partly deadlocked, system of scholarly communication.... Sample PDF
A Classification Scheme for Innovative Types in Scholarly Communication
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Chapter 22
Stefano Paolozzi, Fernando Ferri, Patrizia Grifoni
This chapter describes multimodality as a means of augmenting information retrieval activities in multimedia digital libraries. Multimodal... Sample PDF
Improving Multimedia Digital Libraries Usability Applying NLP Sentence Similarity to Multimodal Sentences
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Chapter 23
Ana Kovacevic, Vladan Devedzic
Our research efforts are oriented towards applying text mining techniques in order to help librarians make more informative decisions when selecting... Sample PDF
Duplicate Journal Title Detection in References
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Chapter 24
Jin-Cheon Na, Tun Thura Thet, Dion Hoe-Lian Goh, Yin-Leng Theng, Schubert Foo
This chapter introduces word segmentation methods for Indo-China languages. It describes six different word segmentation methods developed for the... Sample PDF
Word Segmentation in Indo-China Languages for Digital Libraries
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Chapter 25
Dion Hoe-Lian Goh, Khasfariyati Razikin, Alton Y.K. Chua, Chei Sian Lee, Schubert Foo
Social tagging is the process of assigning and sharing among users freely selected terms of resources. This approach enables users to... Sample PDF
On the Effectiveness of Social Tagging for Resource Discovery
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Chapter 26
Taha Osman, Dhavalkumar Thakker, Gerald Schaefer
While many digital image libraries allow access to large repositories of images, unfortunately, often the provided free-text search returns... Sample PDF
Semantic Annotation and Retrieval of Images in Digital Libraries
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Chapter 27
Ali Shiri
This chapter introduces a new category of digital library user interfaces called metadata-enhanced visual interfaces. Drawing on the earlier... Sample PDF
Metadata and Metaphors in Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries
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Chapter 28
Judy Jeng
This chapter introduces the concept of usability and provides examples of how usability has been used in digital library evaluations. Usability is a... Sample PDF
Usability Evaluation of Digital Library
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Chapter 29
Stephen Kimani, Emanuele Panizzi, Tiziana Catarci, Margerita Antona
The gathering of user requirements is key to the gaining of a deeper understanding of the needs evolving from the user’s operational context and... Sample PDF
Digital Library Requirements: A Questionnaire-Based Study
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Chapter 30
Spyros Veronikis, Giannis Tsakonas, Christos Papatheodorou
The present chapter introduces digital library services’ utilization through handheld devices, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and... Sample PDF
Handhelds for Digital Libraries
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Chapter 31
Mila M. Ramos, Luz Marina Alvaré, Cecilia Ferreyra, Peter Shelton
This chapter introduces the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) Virtual Library as a tool for linking researchers and... Sample PDF
The CGIAR Virtual Library Bridging the Gap Between Agricultural Research and Worldwide Users
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Chapter 32
Robert Neumayer, Andreas Rauber
In this chapter, we introduce alternative ways to access digital audio collections. We give an overview of existing applications based on... Sample PDF
Map-Based User Interfaces for Music Information Retrieval
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Chapter 33
Hideyasu Sasaki
In this chapter, we discuss the issues on patent and trade secret issues on digital libraries, especially patentable parameter-setting components... Sample PDF
Patent and Trade Secret in Digital Libraries
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Chapter 34
Thomas Mandl
This chapter describes personalization strategies adopted in digital libraries. Personalization and individualization are introduced as means to... Sample PDF
User-Adapted Information Services
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Chapter 35
Hepu Deng
Digital resources are readily available and easily accessible with the rapid development of information and communication technologies nowadays.... Sample PDF
An Empirical Analysis of the Utilization of University Digital Library Resources
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Chapter 36
Gerald Schaefer, Simon Ruszala
Following the ever-growing sizes of image databases, effective methods for visualising such databases and navigating through them are much sought... Sample PDF
Visualisation of Large Image Databases
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Chapter 37
Cláudio de Souza Baptista, Ulrich Schiel
A multimedia digital library copes with the storage and retrieval of resources of different media such as video, audio, maps, images, and text... Sample PDF
Towards Multimedia Digital Libraries
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Chapter 38
Nuria Lloret Romero, Margarita Cabrera Méndez, Alicia Sellés Carot, Lilia Fernandez Aquino
The Biblioteca Valenciana was created by the decree 5/1985 of the 8th of January and is presented primarily as “upper library centre of the... Sample PDF
BIVALDI the Digital Library of the Valencian Bibliographic Inheritance
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Chapter 39
Rubén Béjar, J. Nogueras-Iso, Miguel Ángel Latre, Pedro Rafael Muro-Medrano, F. J. Zarazaga-Soria
This chapter introduces Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) and establishes their strong conceptual and technical relationships with geographic... Sample PDF
Digital Libraries as a Foundation of Spatial Data Infrastructures
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Chapter 40
O. Cantán Casbas, J. Nogueras-Iso, F. J. Zarazaga-Soria
A new collaboration paradigm is in order between Digital Libraries (DL) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). These important Information... Sample PDF
DL and GIS: Path to a New Collaboration Paradigm
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Chapter 41
Piedad Garrido Picazo, Jesús Tramullas Saz, Manuel Coll Villalta
This chapter introduces digital libraries as a means of cultural heritage access and diffusion. It argues that digital libraries, combined with... Sample PDF
Digital Libraries Beyond Cultural Heritage Information
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Chapter 42
Wan Ab. Kadir Wan Dollah, Diljit Singh
Information and communication technologies have been used to assist in various functions of library and information units. Digital reference... Sample PDF
Reference Services in Digital Environment
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Chapter 43
Frances L. Lightsom, Alan O. Allwardt
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed three related digital libraries providing access to topical and georeferenced information for... Sample PDF
USGS Digital Libraries for Coastal and Marine Science
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Chapter 44
Digital Preservation  (pages 431-440)
Stephan Strodl, Christoph Becker, Andreas Rauber
The rapid ongoing changes in software and hardware put digital information at risk. The challenge is to keep electronic data accessible, viewable... Sample PDF
Digital Preservation
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Chapter 45
Gerald Schaefer
While image retrieval and image compression have been pursued separately in the past, compressed domain techniques, which allow processing or... Sample PDF
Visual Pattern Based Compressed Domain Image Retrieval
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Chapter 46
Thomas Lidy, Andreas Rauber
This chapter provides an overview of the relatively young but increasingly important domain of Music Information Retrieval, an Information Retrieval... Sample PDF
Music Information Retrieval
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Chapter 47
Juha Kettunen
This abstract describes the networked cooperation of the academic libraries and the consortium of the digital libraries of the Finnish universities... Sample PDF
The Strategic Plan of Digital Libraries
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Chapter 48
Leonardo Bermón-Angarita, Antonio Amescua-Seco, Maria Isabel Sánchez-Segura, Javier García-Guzmán
This paper establishes the incorporation of knowledge management techniques as a means to improve actual software process asset libraries. It... Sample PDF
Software Process Asset Libraries Using Knowledge Repositories
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Chapter 49
Lee Yen Han
In recent years, the development of information technologies and network distributions has brought about the creation of useful learning resources... Sample PDF
The Role and Integration of Digital Libraries in E-Learning
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Chapter 50
Kanwal Ameen, Muhammad Rafiq
This chapter aims to discuss the development of digital libraries in Pakistan. It gives an account of the digital transformation taking place in the... Sample PDF
Development of Digital Libraries in Pakistan
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Chapter 51
Seungwon Yang, Barbara M. Wildemuth, Jeffrey P. Pomerantz, Sanghee Oh
This chapter introduces the effort of developing a digital library (DL) curriculum by an interdisciplinary team from Virginia Tech and the... Sample PDF
Core Topics in Digital Library Education
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Chapter 52
Natalie Pang
Using historical perspectives from ancient libraries in Europe, this chapter is focused on the core role of libraries as centres of knowledge.... Sample PDF
Digital Libraries as Centres of Knowledge: Historical Perspectives from European Ancient Libraries
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Chapter 53
Wolfgang Ratzek
Triggered by a rapid diffusion of ICT within the last two decades, libraries have undergone a (r)evolutionary change in both mission and services.... Sample PDF
The European Approach Towards Digital Library Education: Dead End or Recipe for Success?
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Chapter 54
Faisal Ahmad, Tamara Sumner, Holly Devaul
The limited scope of digital libraries can be attributed to the brick and mortar vision of the library metaphor. In order to extend scope of digital... Sample PDF
New Roles of Digital Libraries
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Chapter 55
Yongqing Ma, Warwick Clegg, Ann O’Brien
In this entry, we review the history, development and current status of digital library (DL) courses and programmes now being offered, mainly by... Sample PDF
A Review of Progress in Digital Library Education
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Chapter 56
Chang Chew-Hung, John G. Hedberg
While the prospect of using digital libraries for learning becomes more appealing with growing repositories of resources, it is not clear what... Sample PDF
The Future of Learning with Digital Libraries
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Chapter 57
Michael B. Twidale, David M. Nichols
This chapter discusses the role of technology in digital library education. It explores how elements of computer science and library science can be... Sample PDF
Computational Sense for Digital Librarians
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Chapter 58
Soh Whee Kheng Grace
Library digitization on a global basis is essential in the twenty-first century. The digital library development initiatives in most countries... Sample PDF
Digital Libraries Overview and Globalization
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About the Contributors