Hierarchical Organization as a Facilitator of Information Management in Human Collaboration

Hierarchical Organization as a Facilitator of Information Management in Human Collaboration

Khaled Ahmed Nagaty (British University in Egypt, Egypt)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-246-6.ch004
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Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the relationship between three entities: hierarchical organization, information management and human collaboration. This relationship is composed of two parts: the first part is the relationship between the hierarchical organization and information management where the role of the hierarchical organization to facilitate the information management processes is discussed. The second part is the relationship between information management and human collaboration where the role of information management to improve human collaboration in problem solving is discussed. The information management processes are illustrated through an information management life cycle model. This model has three major stages: active, semi-active and inactive stages and has three major phases: creation, searching and utilization phases. The creation phase includes: information creation and using, information authoring and modifying and information organization and indexing. The searching phase includes: information storage and retrieving and information exchange. The utilization phase includes: information accessing and filtering processes. The arguments about the role of hierarchical organization in information management and human collaboration are also discussed. The author showed that the hierarchical organization acts as a facilitator for common information management processes which are required in team collaboration such as: information gathering, organization, retrieving, filtering, exchange, integration or fusion, display and visualization. Human collaboration models are discussed with emphasis on the team collaboration structural model which has four unique but interdependent stages of team collaboration. These stages are: team knowledge construction, collaborative team problem solving, team consensus, and product evaluation and revision. Each stage has four levels: meta-cognition process which guides the overall problem solving process, the information processing tasks which is required by the team to complete each collaboration stage, the knowledge required to support the information processing tasks and the communication mechanisms for knowledge building and information processing. The author focused on the role of information management to improve human collaboration across the four collaboration stages of the team collaboration structural model. He showed that the hierarchical organization is more efficient for information management processes and team collaboration rather than other alternative organizations such as flat, linear and network organizations.
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Introduction

It is widely observed that human collaboration is the true competitive advantage for the new era. Merriam Webster’s dictionary defines collaboration as working jointly with others or together especially in an intellectual endeavor. Collaboration is seen as a good work practice because it should, by definition, involve share workload, multiple perspectives provided by diverse expertise, enhance creativity, innovation, and higher product reliability, creation of knowledge and information access and exchange. Collaboration and teamwork are closely coupled activities in which team members work together to produce a product, solve a problem or carry out an action (David N., 2002). Effective partnerships improve human interactions to create more efficient and effective collaboration where partners in human collaboration attempt to reach shared understanding or common ground (Scott, Mark, XiaoQi, & J. Geoffrey, 2008)). Common ground refers to the set of mutual knowledge, shared beliefs and assumptions that collaborators have. This process of establishing shared understanding or grounding involves communication using a large amount of information. According to Schrage (1995) people’s collaborative efforts with different skills are required to create innovative solutions and products.

To better understand and improve the effectiveness of team collaboration there is a need to better understand cognitive processes employed when collaborating to solve high stakes problems that may be characterized with time compression, supported by uncertain and open source information. This can be achieved by studying the process by which team members may interpret data to develop information, build shared understanding that informs decisions, and collaborate to ensure that information and knowledge are shared in support of synchronized action to take decisions. Cognitive collaboration models based on information management help collaborators to attain common situational awareness among multidisciplinary, distributed team members engaged in collaboration for issue resolution or decision making. It examines the cognitive aspects of joint analysis or problem solving for the purpose of attaining shared understanding sufficient to achieve situational awareness for decision making or creation of a product (Office of Naval Research, 2008). Information management processes such as collection, retrieval, exchange, fusion and display of information help to attain shared understanding of a situation at both the individual and team levels. The shared understanding of a situation is affected by the type of collaboration environment which can be one of the following:

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Teemu Saarelainen
The amount of information surrounding us is ever increasing. Usable information is our most valuable asset both in our professional and personal... Sample PDF
Open Formats, Open Information and Future Trends in Software Engineering
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Chapter 2
Chia-Chu Chiang
Documents are perfectly suited for information exchange via the Internet. In order to insure that there are no misunderstandings, information... Sample PDF
Engineering Information Into Open Documents
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Chapter 3
Dwayne Rosenburgh
This chapter presents a look at the decision-making methods used by real-life, collegial, high-achieving, technical teams and organizations. One may... Sample PDF
Decision-making as a Facilitator of High-achievement in Non-hierarchical Technical Environments
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Chapter 4
Khaled Ahmed Nagaty
The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the relationship between three entities: hierarchical organization, information management and human... Sample PDF
Hierarchical Organization as a Facilitator of Information Management in Human Collaboration
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Chapter 5
Christine B. Glaser, Amy Tan, Ahmet M. Kondoz
Managing information collaboratively in an open and unbounded environment without an information management application influenced and challenged... Sample PDF
An Intelligent Information Management Tool for Complex Distributed Human Collaboration
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Chapter 6
Lobna Hsairi, Khaled Ghédira, Adel M. Alim, Abdellatif BenAbdelhafid
In the age of information proliferation, openness, open information management, interconnectivity, collaboration and communication advances... Sample PDF
R2-IBN: Argumentation Based Negotiation Framework for MAIS-E2 model
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Chapter 7
Pauli Brattico, Mikko Maatta
Automatic natural language processing captures a lion’s share of the attention in open information management. In one way or another, many... Sample PDF
Natural Language Parsing: New Perspectives from Contemporary Biolinguistics
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Chapter 8
Sune Lehmann
A network structure of nodes and links is an informative way to study information systems. The network representation is valuable because it encodes... Sample PDF
Structures in Complex Bipartite Networks
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Chapter 9
Juha Kesseli, Andre S. Ribeiro, Matti Nykter
In this chapter the authors study the propagation and processing of information in dynamical systems. Various information management systems can be... Sample PDF
Measuring Information Propagation and Processing in Biological Systems
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Chapter 10
Yacine Benahmed, Sid-Ahmed Selouani, Habib Hamam
In the context of the prodigious growth of network-based information services, messaging and edutainment, we introduce new tools that enable... Sample PDF
Natural Human-System Interaction Using Intelligent Conversational Agents
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Chapter 11
Marko Helén, Tommi Lahti, Anssi Klapuri
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Tools for Automatic Audio Management
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Chapter 12
Susmit Bagchi
Due to the advancement of hardware technologies and mobile communication systems, the mobile devices are transforming into multimedia devices... Sample PDF
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Chapter 13
Edgar Jembere, Matthew O. Adigun, Sibusiso S. Xulu
Human Computer Interaction (HCI) challenges in highly dynamic computing environments can be solved by tailoring the access and use of services to... Sample PDF
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Chapter 14
Josef Makolm, Silke Weiss, Doris Ipsmiller
Efficient and effective knowledge management plays an increasingly important role in knowledge intensive organizations. The research project... Sample PDF
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Chapter 15
Juhana Kokkonen
In this chapter the open-source based collaboration model of Finnish Wikipedia is examined from the perspective of user culture, which is the... Sample PDF
User Culture, User-System Relation and Trust – The Case of Finnish Wikipedia
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Chapter 16
Cristina Melchiors, Lisandro Zambenedetti Granville, Liane Margarida Rockenbach Tarouco
The use of information management tools in open and unbounded operational environments demands an efficient and robust communication infrastructure... Sample PDF
P2P-Based Management of Collaboration Communication Infrastructures
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Chapter 17
John Tsiligaridis
The problem of server performance in a contemporary, rapidly developed and multi-discipline environment is examined. Multiple requests in a very... Sample PDF
A Framework for Semi-Autonomous Servers in the Wireless Network Environment
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Chapter 18
Rakesh Biswas, Kevin Smith, Carmel M. Martin, Joachim P. Sturmberg, Ankur Joshi
This chapter discusses the role of open health information management in the the development of a novel, adaptable mixed-platform for supporting... Sample PDF
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Chapter 19
Michael Losavio, Adel Elmaghraby, Deborah Keeling
The global interconnected information space offers unprecedented ways of accessing and analyzing information. New infringements of the rights of... Sample PDF
Information Management: Jurisdictional, Legal and Ethical Factors
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