High Speed Optical Higher Order Neural Networks for Discovering Data Trends and Patterns in Very Large Databases

High Speed Optical Higher Order Neural Networks for Discovering Data Trends and Patterns in Very Large Databases

David R. Selviah (University College London, UK)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 24
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-897-0.ch020
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Abstract

This chapter describes the progress in using optical technology to construct high-speed artificial higher order neural network systems. The chapter reviews how optical technology can speed up searches within large databases in order to identify relationships and dependencies between individual data records, such as financial or business time-series, as well as trends and relationships within them. Two distinct approaches in which optics may be used are reviewed. In the first approach, the chapter reviews current research replacing copper connections in a conventional data storage system, such as a several terabyte RAID array of magnetic hard discs, by optical waveguides to achieve very high data rates with low crosstalk interference. In the second approach, the chapter reviews how high speed optical correlators with feedback can be used to realize artificial higher order neural networks using Fourier Transform free space optics and holographic database storage.
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Introduction

The problem of searching very large financial or business databases consisting of many variables and the way they have previously changed over time in order to discover relationships between them is difficult and time consuming. One example of this type of problem would be to analyze, the movements of specific equity share values based on how they depend on other variables and, hence, to predict their future behavior. Trends and patterns need to be found within the time-series of the variable. In addition, the relationships and dependencies between the changes in the time-series of the chosen variable and other time-series need to be found bearing in mind that there may be time lags between them. For example, the value of a specific equity share may depend on the time history of other shares, the oil price, the exchange rates, the bank base interest rates, economic variables such as the UK retail prices index (RPI), UK consumer prices index (CPI), the mortgage rates. It may also depend on the weather behavior, the occurrence of natural and manmade disasters and tax and import duty changes. When the time history of all of these variables and many more for all countries is stored it results in a very large database which is slow to search and analyze.

Several terabyte RAID arrays of magnetic hard discs mounted in racks are in demand for storage and backup of crucial financial, business and medical data and to archive all internet web pages and internet traffic. Very impressive simulations of 8 million neurons with 6,300 synapses in the 1 TB main memory on an IBM Blue Gene L supercomputer having 4,096 processors each having 256 MB have recently been reported (Frye, 2007). However, the demand is for similar fast performance at somewhat lower cost and in a more compact system for office use. The speed at which very large databases can be searched is also becoming limited by the speed at which the copper interconnections on the printed circuit boards inside the racks can operate. As speeds approach 10 Gb/s (10,000,000,000 bits per second) the copper tracks act as aerials and broadcast microwaves to each other causing so much crosstalk interference that the systems cannot operate. The radiated signal also causes power loss so the signal cannot travel very far (Grözing, 2006). In addition, the square shaped pulses transmitted degrade due to dispersion and limited bandwidth of the copper tracks so that the emerging pulse is spread in time interfering with adjacent bits causing intersymbol interference (ISI). The solution here is to use optical technology as optical beams can travel next to one another without significant crosstalk interference and suffer much less loss and signal degradation. This solution is discussed in the first part of the chapter in which the copper tracks are replaced by optical waveguides, rather like optical fibers, but more amenable to mass manufacturing as part of the printed circuit board fabrication process.

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Dedication
Table of Contents
Acknowledgment
Ming Zhang
Chapter 1
Ming Zhang
This chapter delivers general format of Higher Order Neural Networks (HONNs) for nonlinear data analysis and six different HONN models. This chapter... Sample PDF
Artificial Higher Order Neural Network Nonlinear Models: SAS NLIN or HONNs?
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Chapter 2
Adam Knowles, Abir Hussain, Wael El Deredy, Paulo G.J. Lisboa, Christian L. Dunis
Multi-Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are the most common type of neural network in use, and their ability to perform complex nonlinear mappings and... Sample PDF
Higher Order Neural Networks with Bayesian Confidence Measure for the Prediction of the EUR/USD Exchange Rate
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Chapter 3
Da Shi, Shaohua Tan, Shuzhi Sam Ge
Real-world financial systems are often nonlinear, do not follow any regular probability distribution, and comprise a large amount of financial... Sample PDF
Automatically Identifying Predictor Variables for Stock Return Prediction
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Chapter 4
John Seiffertt, Donald C. Wunsch II
As the study of agent-based computational economics and finance grows, so does the need for appropriate techniques for the modeling of complex... Sample PDF
Higher Order Neural Network Architectures for Agent-Based Computational Economics and Finance
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Chapter 5
Yuehui Chen, Peng Wu, Qiang Wu
Forecasting exchange rates is an important financial problem that is receiving increasing attention especially because of its difficulty and... Sample PDF
Foreign Exchange Rate Forecasting Using Higher Order Flexible Neural Tree
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Chapter 6
Yuehui Chen, Peng Wu, Qiang Wu
Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have become very important in making stock market predictions. Much research on the applications of ANNs has... Sample PDF
Higher Order Neural Networks for Stock Index Modeling
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Chapter 7
Ming Zhang
This chapter develops a new nonlinear model, Ultra high frequency Trigonometric Higher Order Neural Networks (UTHONN), for time series data... Sample PDF
Ultra High Frequency Trigonometric Higher Order Neural Networks for Time Series Data Analysis
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Chapter 8
Panos Liatsis, Abir Hussain, Efstathios Milonidis
The research described in this chapter is concerned with the development of a novel artificial higher order neural networks architecture called the... Sample PDF
Artificial Higher Order Pipeline Recurrent Neural Networks for Financial Time Series Prediction
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Chapter 9
Abir Hussain, Panos Liatsis
The research described in this chapter is concerned with the development of a novel artificial higherorder neural networks architecture called the... Sample PDF
A Novel Recurrent Polynomial Neural Network for Financial Time Series Prediction
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Chapter 10
David R. Selviah, Janti Shawash
Generalized correlation higher order neural network designs are developed. Their performance is compared with that of first order networks... Sample PDF
Generalized Correlation Higher Order Neural Networks for Financial Time Series Prediction
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Chapter 11
Godfrey C. Onwubolu
Real world problems are described by nonlinear and chaotic processes, which makes them hard to model and predict. This chapter first compares the... Sample PDF
Artificial Higher Order Neural Networks in Time Series Prediction
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Chapter 12
Rozaida Ghazali, Dhiya Al-Jumeily
This chapter discusses the use of two artificial Higher Order Neural Networks (HONNs) models; the Pi- Sigma Neural Networks and the Ridge Polynomial... Sample PDF
Application of Pi-Sigma Neural Networks and Ridge Polynomial Neural Networks to Financial Time Series Prediction
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Chapter 13
Edgar N. Sanchez, Alma Y. Alanis, Jesús Rico
In this chapter, we propose the use of Higher Order Neural Networks (HONNs) trained with an extended Kalman filter based algorithm to predict the... Sample PDF
Electric Load Demand and Electricity Prices ForecastingUsing Higher Order Neural Networks Trained by Kalman Filtering
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Chapter 14
Shuxiang Xu
Business is a diversified field with general areas of specialisation such as accounting, taxation, stock market, and other financial analysis.... Sample PDF
Adaptive Higher Order Neural Network Models and Their Applications in Business
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Chapter 15
Jean X. Zhang
This chapter proposes nonlinear models using artificial neural network models to study the relationship between chief elected official (CEO) tenure... Sample PDF
CEO Tenure and Debt: An Artificial Higher Order Neural Network Approach
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Chapter 16
Christian L. Dunis, Jason Laws, Ben Evans
This chapter investigates the soybean-oil “crush” spread, that is the profit margin gained by processing soybeans into soyoil. Soybeans form a large... Sample PDF
Modelling and Trading the Soybean-Oil Crush Spread with Recurrent and Higher Order Networks: A Comparative Analysis
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Chapter 17
Madan M. Gupta, Noriyasu Homma, Zeng-Guang Hou, Ashu M. G. Solo, Takakuni Goto
In this chapter, we aim to describe fundamental principles of artificial higher order neural units (AHONUs) and networks (AHONNs). An essential core... Sample PDF
Fundamental Theory of Artificial Higher Order Neural Networks
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Chapter 18
Jinde Cao, Fengli Ren, Jinling Liang
This chapter concentrates on studying the dynamics of artificial higher order neural networks (HONNs) with delays. Both stability analysis and... Sample PDF
Dynamics in Artificial Higher Order Neural Networks with Delays
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Chapter 19
Zhao Lu, Leang-san Shieh, Guanrong Chen
Aiming to develop a systematic approach for optimizing the structure of artificial higher order neural networks (HONN) for system modeling and... Sample PDF
A New Topology for Artificial Higher Order Neural Networks: Polynomial Kernel Networks
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Chapter 20
David R. Selviah
This chapter describes the progress in using optical technology to construct high-speed artificial higher order neural network systems. The chapter... Sample PDF
High Speed Optical Higher Order Neural Networks for Discovering Data Trends and Patterns in Very Large Databases
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Chapter 21
Zidong Wang, Yurong Liu, Xiaohui Liu
This chapter deals with the analysis problem of the global exponential stability for a general class of stochastic artificial higher order neural... Sample PDF
On Complex Artificial Higher Order Neural Networks: Dealing with Stochasticity, Jumps and Delays
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Chapter 22
Lei Zhang, Simeon J. Simoff, Jing Chun Zhang
This chapter introduces trigonometric polynomial higher order neural network models. In the area of financial data simulation and prediction, there... Sample PDF
Trigonometric Polynomial Higher Order Neural Network Group Models and Weighted Kernel Models for Financial Data Simulation and Prediction
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