Holography: Re-Defined

Holography: Re-Defined

Martin Richardson (De Montfort University, UK) and Paul Scattergood (De Montfort University, UK)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-352-4.ch006
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When writing this chapter it became apparent that we were not only exponents of digital holography, but also the critics. This is a problem when it comes to new media. How can one begin to make objective critical theory on a subject when there are no historical or ideological structures that produce and constrain it? While other digital technologies prove well developed, semantic and expressive, digital holography has some way to go before any quantized analysis of the subject is possible. This paper explores the function of digital holography, seeking comparison from other media and explores holography’s influence as a radical form of electronic digital three-dimensional image capture. Within this context we draw comparison with other forms of image making, from cave paintings in Lascaux (France), to Fox Talbot’s early experiments to capture light, Corbusiers architectural designs of space, to early television transmission. They all have one unifying factor: the unfamiliar and the strange, emblematic to visual possibilities in our perception of space.
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New Visions

The illusion of Three-Dimensional space may be traced back to a time in classical western history to the development of painting, and of its use to create visual likenesses, was through the utilization of mathematics by Italian architect, Filippo Brunelleschi, in the middle of the fifteenth century. His invention was used in the work of such famous artists as Piero Della Francesca, Albrecht Durer and others. In paintings made in accordance with the invention of perspective, it is possible to distinguish whether an object is situated in the foreground of in the background and to locate the point where all the lines describing the depth of the depicted space converge. Nevertheless, even this innovation did not solve the main problem, since the three-dimensional scene remained two-dimensional in the picture. Further perfection of the painting technique and the application of innovatory methods, such as the use of an improved camera obscure in the seventeenth century, were aimed at the inclusion of greater detail. But still the invention of perspective is a false, a man made calculation, which only serves to constrain the observers view rather than enlighten it.

A marked step in solving the complicated problem of detailed representation of our three-dimensional world was made by photography. In taking photographs, the lens is used to construct the image in the physical plane of the recording material. The lens is constructing a ‘mini’ three-dimensional form inside the camera and as we change focus we are selecting the physical plane, the area of interest we want others to see too. Since Fox Talbot’s early experiments in the eighteenth century, photography has represented objects of the surrounding world in a far from perfect way. A vision we can take no further, a vision that, like language, has influenced society beyond all expectations. As we move into the digital epoch the prime illusion – digital holography – is patently waiting its turn.

As physics explores the quantum universe attempting the development of a holistic theory we can observe the holographic principle at work in almost every principle of life. Indeed, some even suggesting the universe may be compared to one giant hologram as the information of the whole exists in every constituent part; that a tiny little piece, a tiny particle, might contain all the information pertaining to everything that exists or has ever existed. As quantum holography reaches far into new theories to explain and ‘un-lock’ such baffling forces such as gravity, gravitons, gravitines - the very glue that binds our atoms together – even life itself, or our perception of it. A theory interestingly endorsed by many cults including the Institute of Noetic Sciences (IONS), founded by Edgar Mitchell who walked on the moon with Al Shepard during NASA’s 14th Apollo mission. A note of caution however because as we shall see, the holographic principle itself is a spectacular tool of deception and arguably the most advanced form of technological visual deception to date, certainly one of the most intriguing.

Are holograms “Mere” illusions of objective visual reality or creative artefacts capable of expression, interpretation and deception? Certainly an emerging technology that offers the opportunity of usurping conventional two-dimensional with the third-dimension. Holographic Optical Elements (HOE’s) usurp our perception of the ‘real’ in ways previously impossible. The alternative modern holography offers industry may be compared with the role of electronic circuits and microprocessors held at the beginning of the 60’s as an alternative to the electronic valve. Mass-produced ‘Holographic Optical Elements’ are starting to replace micro-lens arrays, and ‘Holographic Phase Memory’ is poised-ready to replace today’s standard magnetic hard-drives - we are about to start our journey into ‘The Age of Photonics’. Modern holography is capable of integration within digital media exploding the limitations of its forbearers and launching its new development as hyper-media.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Gabriele Meiselwitz
James Braman, Giovanni Vincenti, Goran Trajkovski
James Braman, Giovanni Vincenti, Goran Trajkovski
Chapter 1
Adérito Fernandes Marcos, Pedro Branco, João Álvaro Carvalho
Art objects might be described as symbolic objects that aim at stimulating emotions. They reach us through our senses (visual, auditory, tactile, or... Sample PDF
The Computer Medium in Digital Art's Creative Process
Chapter 2
Salah Uddin Ahmed, Letizia Jaccheri, Guttorm Sindre, Anna Trifonova
The interaction between art and technology, especially computing technology, is an increasing trend in the recent years. The context of this... Sample PDF
Conceptual Framework for the Intersection of Software and Art
Chapter 3
Joseph William Pruitt
The purpose of this chapter is to define the roles of engineering and design within the product development cycle looking at both the scientific and... Sample PDF
The Design of Engineering
Chapter 4
Jim Bizzocchi, Belgacem Ben Youssef
The chapter describes the synergistic integration of distinct research and creation agendas, each firmly grounded in its own set of practices and... Sample PDF
Ambient Video, Slow-Motion, and Convergent Domains of Practice
Chapter 5
Ethan Ham
Randomness is a slippery term that conveys different meanings in different disciplines. In mathematics, an individual number is random when there is... Sample PDF
Randomness, Chance, & Art
Chapter 6
Holography: Re-Defined  (pages 103-112)
Martin Richardson, Paul Scattergood
When writing this chapter it became apparent that we were not only exponents of digital holography, but also the critics. This is a problem when it... Sample PDF
Holography: Re-Defined
Chapter 7
Lorenzo Picinali
What is the real potential of computer science when applied to music? It is possible to synthesize a “real” guitar using physical modelling... Sample PDF
3D Sound Simulation over Headphones
Chapter 8
Raphael DiLuzio
This is a guide for working with a visual art form using a digital time-based medium. This chapter will provide an overview of the necessary... Sample PDF
Broken Cinema: The Eye and Hand in a Time-Based Art
Chapter 9
Ambivalent Interplay  (pages 146-161)
Heejoo Kim
The human vision, the most ubiquitous receptor of the human senses, has been the prevailing sensory organ for a noticeable manifestation of visual... Sample PDF
Ambivalent Interplay
Chapter 10
Yueh Hsiu Giffen Cheng
The development of net art originates from the rising of net media generally. During the past two decades, Net art has overthrown the standards of... Sample PDF
The Aesthetics of Net dot Art
Chapter 11
Nicola Quinn, Annette Aboulafia
People have used tools for artistic expression for millennia. Relatively recent is the use of digital technology to afford the creation of art.... Sample PDF
A Graphics Tablet as a Fine Art Tool
Chapter 12
Greg J. Smith
This text seeks to contextualize the history of and discourse surrounding information visualization. It positions visualization in relation to... Sample PDF
Information Visualization and Interface Culture
Chapter 13
Benjamin David Robert Bogart
“Memory Association Machine” (also known as “Self-Other Organizing Structure #1”) is the first prototype in a series of site-specific responsive... Sample PDF
Memory Association Machine
Chapter 14
Stefano De Luca, Eugenia Benelli, Francesco Altarocca, Dario Dussoni
Designing good and sound architectural projects is a hard job. Generally these kinds of projects involve many stakeholders, everyone with his/her... Sample PDF
EVO-PARK: Designing Better Architecture Projects Using Participated and Interactive Genetic Algorithms
Chapter 15
Sergiy Rakov, Viktor Gorokh, Kirill Osenkov
The chapter discusses the possibilities modern IT opens for Mathematics and its applications to real life, in particular to Art – by an example of... Sample PDF
Mathematics, Computer Mathematical Systems, Creativity, Art
Chapter 16
Jim Barta, Ron Eglash
Students who may typically view mathematics as a sterile and disjointed subject are learning new skills and concepts using a suite of virtual design... Sample PDF
Teaching Artful Expressions of Mathematical Beauty: Virtually Creating Native American Beadwork and Rug Weaving
Chapter 17
Mia Kalish
One visualization in Diné philosophy is four small dots arranged in a circular sequence at 90°, 0°, 270°, and 180°. Each position is associated with... Sample PDF
Visual Analytics and Conceptual Blending Theory
Chapter 18
Lindsay Grace
Enculturation is the act of passing cultural ideologies from one person to the other. It is what breeds innovation instead of new creation. It is... Sample PDF
The Challenge of Enculturation on Art
Chapter 19
Lindsay Grace
Software is philosophical. Software is designed by people who have been influenced by a specific understanding of the way objects, people and... Sample PDF
The Philosophies of Software
Chapter 20
Technological Social-ism  (pages 343-374)
Judson Wright
Culture is a byproduct of our brains. Moreover, we’ll look at ways culture also employs ritual (from shamanistic practices to grocery shopping) to... Sample PDF
Technological Social-ism
Chapter 21
Stephen A. Schrum
As creative people inhabit virtual worlds, they bring their ideas for art and performance with them into these brave new worlds. While at first... Sample PDF
Theatre in Second Life® Holds the VR Mirror up to Nature
Chapter 22
Machinima in Second Life  (pages 396-416)
Stephany Filimon
This chapter provides a brief history of machinima, films created by computer users within virtual worlds, and focuses on machinima produced within... Sample PDF
Machinima in Second Life
Chapter 23
Andrew Jinman
Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are becoming an increasingly popular recreational activity for social engagement.... Sample PDF
Player Motivation and Understanding Game Dynamics
About the Contributors