Humanism comes from one of three schools of psychology in which theories are categorized. The other two schools are the schools of behaviorism and cognitivism. It is believed that one school of theory is not better than the other, and individuals are encouraged to apply the theory that is the most appropriate for the student. Theories from the school of humanism focus on students’ affective needs which means that the theorists center their attention on feelings, emotions, values, and attitudes (Tomei, 2007). Colonel Parker, once deemed the Father of Progressivism of the nineteenth century by John Dewey, promoted creating curriculum with the child at its center. He wanted the school to be a replica of home, an inclusive community, and a budding democracy for the students. Parker’s work and thought on curriculum would eventually be an apparent part of John Dewey’s progressive work (Pinar, Reynolds, Slattery, & Taubman, 1996).
Key Terms in this Chapter
Behavioral Theory: Behavioral theory comes from one of three schools of psychology in which theories are categorized. Theories from the school of behaviorism hold that the environment has an impact on learning and that all behavior is learned.
Online Learning: A form of learning in which learners interact with each other and the instructor through either asynchronous or synchronous modes of learning.
Humanistic Theory: Humanistic theory comes from one of three schools of psychology in which theories are categorized. Theories from the school of humanism focus on learner’s affective needs that include their feelings, emotions, values, and attitudes.
Cognitive Theory: Cognitive theory comes from one of three schools of psychology in which theories are categorized. Theories from the school of cognitivism guide students to process information in ways that are meaningful to the student. These theories are based on declarative and procedural learning tasks that are authentic.
Online Instructors: Qualified individuals who have had the schooling or training to teach or guide learners to gain new knowledge and abilities in an online learning environment.
Instructional Design Theory: Use of theory by professionals when designing, developing, managing, and evaluating a learning experience.