Hybrid Emotionally Aware Mediated Multiagency

Hybrid Emotionally Aware Mediated Multiagency

Giovanni Vincenti (Towson University, USA) and James Braman (Towson University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-236-7.ch014
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Abstract

Emotions influence our everyday lives, guiding and misguiding us. They lead us to happiness and love, but also to irrational acts. Artificial intelligence aims at constructing agents that can emulate thinking processes, but artificial life still lacks emotions and all the consequences that come from them. This work introduces an emotionally aware framework geared towards multi-agent societies. Basing our model on the shoulders of solid foundations created by pioneers who first explored the coupling of emotions and agency, we extend their ideas to include inter-agent interaction and virtual genetics as key components of an agent’s emotive state. We also introduce possible future applications of this framework in consumer products as well as research endeavors.
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Introduction

We as human beings are influenced by many factors as we carry out our daily activities and routines. Emotions in particular play an important role that often provokes biased decisions. Emotion as it influences one’s behavior can do so in erratic and unpredictable ways with variations between individuals and circumstances. The unpredictability of emotion based responses can lead to many variations of interaction. This would certainly apply to interactions between humans, but also to interactions between humans and environmental artifacts and also to human-agent interactions. Decisions biased by a particular emotional state can produce erratic, impulsive or risky decision making behaviors within a given context (Loewenstein, Weber, Hsee, & Welch, 2001). If these states can cause a person to act in a potentially destructive fashion we should investigate ways to limit these effects. Various factors can contribute in eliciting such states and can be influenced by events in the environment, mental defect or disease, genetic disposition, traumatic events, social interactions or based from ones own perceptions. (Selyse & Fortier 1950; Loewenstein et al., 2001; Ohman & Wiens, 2004). Our approach is to use these behaviors and emotional models together with human and non human agents as the foundation for hybrid emotionally aware agent architecture for multiagent systems.

Due to the nature and complications associated with emotions, our aim is not to simulate complex emotional states or conditions within agents themselves, but to investigate how simple emotional simulations can be used to for a variety of purposes. Such phenomena can be modeled within a homogenous multi-agent system composed of emotionally enhanced sets of agents given both a finite set of options and emotional states. Our agents have limited abilities and actions based on their current emotional well being. Following previous experimentation with limited perceptual context for a given agent and its combined effect on understanding and formation of personal goals, we now apply emotion in limiting an agent’s perception and motivational attributes (Trajkovski, Collins, Braman & Goldberg, 2006). In experimentations by Trajkovski, a hybrid interaction between human users and non-human agents can form a system that attempts to learn and adapt from each other in various conditions and contexts (2006). Emotions in our framework create a limiting heuristic that is directly associated with an agent’s ability to sense and interact within the system.

The current state of an agent is derived from its ability to satisfy its drive to find “goal” locations within the environment. Similar to human behavior, an agent may become distressed or agitated if they fail at their attempts to find these simulated goals. These agents can compute the length of time that has past and/or the number of moves they have made; this compounded with the introduction of obstacles along its path will elicit a angry response as it becomes frustrated at the rise in difficulty or lack of a drive satisfier. In other cases in conjunction to these influences, agents may come into contact with others within the system. Agents in our framework however are limited to perception in a limited sensory field.

We see emotions as both a dynamic and prevailing influence over response mechanisms for an agent. Often emotions are attributed to “clouding” one’s ability to make rational decisions which implies that they have a tendency to interfere with rational thinking and our ability to interpret perceptual information (Artz, 2000). In other situations they can however be extremely useful in making certain decisions “by rapidly reducing the options that one can consider” (Greenberg, 2002). Agents (human or non-human) while working with large amounts of data or available options will want to be able to filter, select and restructure it, with least possible effort (Shneiderman, 2005). In a similar application, emotions can be used in these situations to help filter out certain options. These changes in perception and available options are areas being explored by attributing certain basic states in goal seeking agents and examining its overall consequence.

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Georgi Stojanov
Chapter 1
R. Keith Sawyer
Sociology should be the foundational science of social emergence. But to date, sociologists have neglected emergence, and studies of emergence are... Sample PDF
The Science of Social Emergence
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Chapter 2
Christopher Goldspink, Robert Kay
This chapter critically examines our theoretical understanding of the dialectical relationship between emergent social structures and agent... Sample PDF
Agent Cognitive Capabilities and Orders of Social Emergence
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Chapter 3
Joseph C. Bullington
Social interaction represents a powerful new locus of research in the quest to build more truly human-like artificial agents. The work in this area... Sample PDF
Agents and Social Interaction: Insights from Social Psychology
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Chapter 4
M. Afzal Upal
This chapter will critically review existing approaches to the modeling transmission of cultural information and advocate a new approach based on a... Sample PDF
Predictive Models of Cultural Information Transmission
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Chapter 5
Jorge A. Romero
Despite the popularity of agents for the information technology infrastructure, questions remain because it is not clear what do e-business agents... Sample PDF
Interaction of Agent in E-Business: A Look at Different Sources
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Chapter 6
Adam J. Conover
This chapter presents a description of ongoing experimental research into the emergent properties of multi-agent communication in “temporally... Sample PDF
A Simulation of Temporally Variant Agent Interaction via Passive Inquiry
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Chapter 7
Richard Schilling
This chapter presents a generalized messaging infrastructure that can be used for distributed agent systems. The principle of agent feedback... Sample PDF
Agent Feedback Messaging: A Messaging Infrastructure for Distributed Message Delivery
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Chapter 8
Yu Zhang, Mark Lewis, Christine Drennon, Michael Pellon, Coleman
Multi-agent systems have been used to model complex social systems in many domains. The entire movement of multi-agent paradigm was spawned, at... Sample PDF
Modeling Cognitive Agents for Social Systems and a Simulation in Urban Dynamics
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Chapter 9
Scott Watson, Kerstin Dautenhahn, Wan Ching (Steve) Ho, Rafal Dawidowicz
This chapter discusses certain issues in the development of Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) populated by autonomous social agents, with... Sample PDF
Developing Relationships Between Autonomous Agents: Promoting Pro-Social Behaviour Through Virtual Learning Environments Part I
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Chapter 10
Martin Takác
In this chapter, we focus on the issue of understanding in various types of agents. Our main goal is to build up notions of meanings and... Sample PDF
Construction of Meanings in Biological and Artificial Agents
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Chapter 11
Myriam Abramson
In heterogeneous multi-agent systems, where human and non-human agents coexist, intelligent proxy agents can help smooth out fundamental... Sample PDF
Training Coordination Proxy Agents Using Reinforcement Learning
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Chapter 12
Deborah V. Duong
The first intelligent agent social model, in 1991, used tags with emergent meaning to simulate the emergence of institutions based on the principles... Sample PDF
The Generative Power of Signs: The Importance of the Autonomous Perception of Tags to the Strong Emergence of Institutions
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Chapter 13
Josefina Sierra, Josefina Santibáñez
This chapter addresses the problem of the acquisition of the syntax of propositional logic. An approach based on general purpose cognitive... Sample PDF
Propositional Logic Syntax Acquisition Using Induction and Self-Organisation
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Chapter 14
Giovanni Vincenti, James Braman
Emotions influence our everyday lives, guiding and misguiding us. They lead us to happiness and love, but also to irrational acts. Artificial... Sample PDF
Hybrid Emotionally Aware Mediated Multiagency
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Chapter 15
Samuel G. Collins, Goran Trajkovski
In this chapter, we give an overview of the results of a Human-Robot Interaction experiment, in a near zerocontext environment. We stimulate the... Sample PDF
Mapping Hybrid Agencies Through Multiagent Systems
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Chapter 16
Scott Watson, Kerstin Dautenhahn, Wan Ching (Steve) Ho, Rafal Dawidowicz
This chapter is a continuation from Part I, which has described contemporary psychological descriptions of bullying in primary schools and two... Sample PDF
Developing Relationships Between Autonomous Agents: Promoting Pro-Social Behaviour Through Virtual Learning Environments Part II
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Chapter 17
Mario Paolucci, Rosaria Conte
This chapter is focused on social reputation as a fundamental mechanism in the diffusion and possibly evolution of socially desirable behaviour... Sample PDF
Reputation: Social Transmission for Partner Selection
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Chapter 18
Adam J. Conover
This chapter concludes a two part series which examines the emergent properties of multi-agent communication in “temporally asynchronous”... Sample PDF
A Simulation of Temporally Variant Agent Interaction via Belief Promulgation
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Chapter 19
David B. Newlin
Following the discovery in Rhesus monkeys of “mirror neurons” that fire during both execution and observation of motor behavior, human studies have... Sample PDF
The Human Mirror Neuron System
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Chapter 20
Eric Baumer, Bill Tomlinson
This chapter presents an argument that the process of emergence is the converse of the process of abstraction. Emergence involves complex behavior... Sample PDF
Relationships Between the Processes of Emergence and Abstraction in Societies
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Chapter 21
Vern R. Walker
In modern legal systems, a large number of autonomous agents can achieve reasonably fair and accurate decisions in tens of thousands of legal cases.... Sample PDF
Emergent Reasoning Structures in Law
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Chapter 22
Theodor Richardson
Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS) are designed to differentiate malicious traffic, from normal traf- fic, on a network system to detect the... Sample PDF
Agents in Security: A Look at the Use of Agents in Host-Based Monitoring and Protection and Network Intrusion Detection
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Chapter 23
Michael J. North, Thomas R. Howe, Nick Collier, Eric Tatara, Jonathan Ozik, Charles Macal
Search has been recognized as an important technology for a wide range of software applications. Agentbased modelers often face search challenges... Sample PDF
Search as a Tool for Emergence
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About the Contributors