Identifying Opportunities for Using ICT

Identifying Opportunities for Using ICT

S.C. Lenny Koh (University of Sheffield, UK) and Stuart Maguire (University of Sheffield, UK)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-424-8.ch006
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Abstract

The reason for going ahead with a new information system (IS) development can come from many sources. A new business requirement may force an organization to develop a new IS. An existing IS may be coming to the end of its usefulness. The firm may decide to either update its existing system or develop a completely new system.
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Organizations that fuse technology, business process design and business relationships are expected to outperform those that do not by at least 15% per year, but only if they have a high level of credibility and the necessary skills (Gartner symposium, Barcelona, 2005).

The Eden Project in Cornwall has launched what is believed to be the U.K. first paperless ticketing system based on mobile phone technology. Visitors to the garden park will be able to order, purchase and redeem their tickets using their mobile phones (2007).

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Introduction

The reason for going ahead with a new information system (IS) development can come from many sources. A new business requirement may force an organization to develop a new IS. An existing IS may be coming to the end of its usefulness. The firm may decide to either update its existing system or develop a completely new system.

An organization may review its existing systems and discover that an existing system is not providing the up to date information that is required by the organization. Users within the organization may have new decisions to make and that may prompt the firm to implement a new IS. The organization may find itself under increased competition. It may feel that it has to develop a new IS to keep up with rival companies. Smaller firms have a similar range of problems but are not even able to call on experienced information systems (IS) staff to tailor their software and usually have to rely on off-the-shelf packages (Maguire et al 2007).

Figure 1.

A new technology may become available that puts pressure on the organization to update its existing technology platform. It is important that the organization does not rush into an information system development without careful planning. Too many organizations have implemented IS without considering the repercussions. This is an important issue even for small and medium-sized enterprises (Maguire & Magrys, 2001). Larger firms can spend billions of pounds (sterling) on new information systems. It is likely to be the biggest capital expenditure they undertake. They do this even though the measures for performance evaluation are rather underdeveloped (Tallon & Kraemer, 2007).

Is the quest for strategic business advantage through ICT no more than the emperor’s clothes? While the tailors assure us it is not, a growing body of research suggests that this may be the case. Equally worrying, some researchers say managers are finding it increasingly difficult to believe technology alone is a contributor to sustainable competitive advantage (Irani et al. 1999), These findings are echoed in a working paper from City University Business School which says that while users endorse the need for competitive advantage from their ICT systems they rarely adopt criteria to enable them to assess any advantages systems confer. A similar finding came from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) research programme into the effects of ICT in the 1990s (Scott Morton, 1991). It found that information systems (IS) are easily copied by competitors and that changes in company structure rarely bring lasting benefits. One would imagine that over 15 years later we would have learned from previous mistakes.

At the same time writers are struggling to find excellent examples of highly successful ARE/ICT implementations which have made a dramatic difference to commercial organizations; systems installed at such organizations as Thomson Holidays, Dun & Bradstreet, and American Airlines (Turban et al 2004b).

The picture uncovered by these studies is one of a broad mass of users failing to secure significant commercial benefits through ICT investment and in many cases not even taking steps to determine whether such benefits have been gained, while continuing to pay lip service to the idea of competitive advantage. If these researchers are correct, and there is no reason to dispute the findings, IS departments must find some other basis for initiating further investment. At the very least, they must adopt some objective criteria for demonstrating that competitive advantage is capable of being secured by such investment (Chaffey and Wood, 2005).

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Elias G. Carayannis
Acknowledgment
Chapter 1
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
The issues that are currently affecting all managers are similar to those facing managers of ICT. The following is a list, though not exhaustive, of... Sample PDF
Review of Current ICT Developments
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Chapter 2
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
The ultimate reason why organizations develop information systems is so that their employees can make good decisions. If firms did not make... Sample PDF
Linking Information to Business Strategies and Decision-Making
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Chapter 3
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
The introduction of new IS can often have a significant effect on the business practices within an organization. It is important that a lack of... Sample PDF
Developing and Implementing an ICT Strategy
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Chapter 4
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
It is important for today’s dynamic organizations to develop a strong and sustainable links with outside organizations and agencies. It may be... Sample PDF
Strategic Alliance Through the Use of ICT
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Chapter 5
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
Information Systems (IS) has borrowed many techniques from other disciplines. However, many of these have been borrowed from areas where the outcome... Sample PDF
Planning and Managing ICT Change
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Chapter 6
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
The reason for going ahead with a new information system (IS) development can come from many sources. A new business requirement may force an... Sample PDF
Identifying Opportunities for Using ICT
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Chapter 7
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
The development of information systems (IS) has for many years been regarded as the domain of the technical expert. In what appears to be a growing... Sample PDF
Introduction to Current Techniques for Effective ICT Development
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Chapter 8
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
Nearly all information systems developments follow a structured approach. This is true of all projects. This chapter takes a critical look at both... Sample PDF
System Development and Project Management
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Chapter 9
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
If organizations were good at ICT planning there would not be as many information systems failures. There is a definite need for improved... Sample PDF
Critical Success Factors for ICT Development
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Chapter 10
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
For many organizations, the implementation of a new information system (IS) may be the biggest capital expenditure they undertake. If substantial... Sample PDF
Impediments to the Successful Implementation of ICT
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Chapter 11
Learning From Failures  (pages 176-206)
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
Strategic.failures can be defined as failures of achieving the expected benefits from the organizational, size and industrial sectors or countries’... Sample PDF
Learning From Failures
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Chapter 12
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
The Internet Cultural Era (ICE) has driven many Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the UK and Ghana to adopt ICT technology. This... Sample PDF
Drivers and Barriers for ICT Development
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Chapter 13
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
Although Boeing and Rolls-Royce are operating in the same aerospace industry sector and use ERP, but the ways that they implemented their systems... Sample PDF
Current Developments and Diffusions in ICT: ERP, SCM, CRM
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Chapter 14
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
Globalisation, modernisation and streamlining paradigms have driven many enterprises to use various e-Technologies in order to improve the... Sample PDF
E-Technology: E-Business, Intranet, Extranet, Internet
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Chapter 15
Knowledge Management  (pages 285-296)
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
Knowledge.Management can be defined as the critical issues of organisational adaptation, survival and competence against discontinuous environmental... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management
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Chapter 16
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
In information terms, security can be defined as the processes of ensuring that private information remains private and uncompromised in an... Sample PDF
Security and Risk Management
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Chapter 17
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
Commercial airlines face an extremely challenging operating and competitive environment. To remain in business they must comply with ever-changing... Sample PDF
Improving IT-Enabled Sense and Respond Capabilities: An Application of Business Activity Monitoring at Southern International Airlines
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Chapter 18
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
This case describes how banking in India has changed after developments in information technology in the last decade. The new private and foreign... Sample PDF
Competing in the Age of Information Technology in a Developing Economy: Experiences of an Indian Bank
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Chapter 19
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 opened competition in the telecommunications market in the U.S. and forced the incumbent telecommunications... Sample PDF
Developing a Telecommunication Operation Support Systems (OSS): The Impact of a Change in Network Technology
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Chapter 20
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
Nazar Group of Companies has been a leading producer and distributor of cookies, crackers, cakes, chocolate, and other products in Turkey for more... Sample PDF
Nazar Foods Company: Business Process Redesign Under Supply Chain Management Context
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Chapter 21
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
The TeleDoc project of Jivan Institute has combined mobile commerce and the ancient concepts of Ayurveda for treatment of rural residents of India... Sample PDF
The Expansion Plan of TeleDoc: What and How Much of the Technology Employed is to Change?
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Chapter 22
S.C. Lenny Koh, Stuart Maguire
E-government is becoming a reality rather than a theoretical ambition; however, achieving the e-government anticipated benefits is still illusive... Sample PDF
Process-Aware E-Government Services Management: Reconciling Citizen Business, and Technology Dynamics
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About the Authors