Image Registration Algorithms for Applications in Oncology

Image Registration Algorithms for Applications in Oncology

Katia Marina Passera (Politecnico di Milano, Italy) and Luca Tommaso Mainardi (Politecnico di Milano, Italy)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-314-2.ch009
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Abstract

Image registration is the process of determining the correspondence of features between images collected at different times or using different imaging modalities. A wide range of registration algorithms was proposed in literature for solving this task. In this chapter the focus will be on oncology applications, where registration is the prior step of: i) subtraction imaging (to emphasize hyper (or hypo) enhanced structures), ii) fusion imaging (to integrate anatomical and functional information about lesions) and iii) serial imaging comparison (to monitor the progression/regression of a disease). These applications are of great relevance in tumors diagnosis, staging and treatment planning. The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of registration algorithms considering these different applications in oncology. We discuss the advantages/disadvantages of each algorithm, the results gained and the possible future developments to comply with new requirements.
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Introduction

The role of imaging in oncology has increased in the last few years, both for identification and staging of the primitive tumors and for re-evaluation of patients during chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

Often, clinical and therapeutic decisions are taken from the comparison of information extracted by images acquired using different modalities (multimodal analysis) or by a single modality at different time instants (multitemporal analysis).

Typical examples are the integration of anatomical information of CT and functional information of PET, the analysis of contrast-enhanced images for identification and characterization of lesions or the comparison of images acquired at different stages of a treatment (chemotherapy or radiotherapy).

For many of these tasks, image registration is a crucial step to recover the geometric relationship between corresponding points in multiple images of the same scene (Figure 1) which allows a direct, immediate point-to-point analysis.

Figure 1.

Registration of one image (A) to the coordinate system of another image (B) by a transformation, T: (x,y,z) (x’, y’, z’)

Literature provides a wide range of articles and reviews treating the problem of image registration in biomedical applications (Maintz, 1998; Fitzpatrick, 2000; Zitova, 2003), some of them dedicated to a particular organ like heart (Makela, 2002) and brain (Toga, 2001; Thompson, 2000) or to a particular imaging modality like nuclear medicine (Hutton, 2002) or digital angiography (Meijering, 1998).

The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of registration algorithms for applications in oncology and in particular for the diagnosis, staging and monitoring of tumors.

The chapter is organized as follows: after a brief recall of general concepts about image registration techniques, we will introduce three applications of registration procedure in oncology (image subtraction, image fusion and serial imaging comparison) and we will describe the registration algorithms that better suit with each particular task. In addition, we will discuss open issues and future trends of this topic.

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Background

Registration can be achieved by different methods that take into account different aspects. Maintz (1998) has suggested a nine dimensionality scheme to classify registration methods that Fitzpatrick (2000) has condensed in eight. For our purposes, the most useful classifications are with respect to (1) registration basis (i.e. the aspect/feature used to achieve the registration) and (2) geometrical transformation.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Contrast Enhancement: An image processing technique aiming at enhancing global or local contrast of an image. In MR or CT imaging, in order to characterize different types of lesions contrast is augmented by intravenous injection of a contrast agent.

Image Registration: The task of finding a correspondence function mapping coordinates from a reference image to coordinates of homologous points in a test image.

Mutual Information: In probability theory and information theory, the mutual information of two random variables is a quantity that measures the mutual dependence of the two variables.

Image Subtraction: A technique that permits to emphasize hyper (or hypo) enhanced structures by subtracting pre- from post-contrast images in MR or CT imaging.

Image Fusion: The process of combining relevant information from two or more images into a single image. The resulting image will be more informative than any of the input images.

Oncology: The branch of medicine that deals with tumors, including study of their development, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

Serial Imaging: Consists of the sequential acquisitions over time of images of the same patient to monitor changes of a pathological area and effects of therapies/treatments.

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Table of Contents
Preface
Themis P. Exarchos, Athanasios Papadopoulos, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
Chapter 1
Ioannis Dimou, Michalis Zervakis, David Lowe, Manolis Tsiknakis
The automation of diagnostic tools and the increasing availability of extensive medical datasets in the last decade have triggered the development... Sample PDF
Computational Methods and Tools for Decision Support in Biomedicine: An Overview of Algorithmic Challenges
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Chapter 2
William Hsu, Alex A.T. Bui, Ricky K. Taira, Hooshang Kangarloo
Though an unparalleled amount and diversity of imaging and clinical data are now collected as part of routine care, this information is not... Sample PDF
Integrating Imaging and Clinical Data for Decision Support
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Chapter 3
Spyretta Golemati, John Stoitsis, Konstantina S. Nikita
The estimation of motion of the myocardial and arterial wall is important for the quantification of tissue elasticity and contractility and has... Sample PDF
Analysis and Quantification of Motion within the Cardiovascular System: Implications for the Mechanical Strain of Cardiovascular Structures
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Chapter 4
Christos V. Bourantas, Katerina Naka, Dimitrios Fotiadis, Lampros Michalis
Intracoronary Ultrasound (ICUS) imaging is an intravascular catheter-based technique which provides real-time, high resolution, cross-sectional... Sample PDF
New Developments in Intracoronary Ultrasound Processing
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Chapter 5
Stavroula Mougiakakou, Ioannis Valavanis, Alexandra Nikita, Konstantina S. Nikita
Recent advances in computer science provide the intelligent computation tools needed to design and develop Diagnostic Support Systems (DSSs) that... Sample PDF
Diagnostic Support Systems and Computational Intelligence: Differential Diagnosis of Hepatic Lesions from Computed Tomography Images
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Chapter 6
Marotesa Voultsidou, J. Michael Herrmann
Indicative features of an fMRI data set can be evaluated by methods provided by theory of random matrices (RMT). RMT considers ensembles of matrices... Sample PDF
Significance Estimation in fMRI from Random Matrices
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Chapter 7
Dimitrios C. Karampinos, Robert Dawe, Konstantinos Arfanakis, John G. Georgiadis
Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (diffusion MRI) can provide important information about tissue microstructure by probing the diffusion of water... Sample PDF
Optimal Diffusion Encoding Strategies for Fiber Mapping in Diffusion MRI
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Chapter 8
Dimitrios G. Tsalikakis, Petros S. Karvelis, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
Segmentation plays a crucial role in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) applications, since it permits automated detection of regions of... Sample PDF
Segmentation of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Images
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Chapter 9
Katia Marina Passera, Luca Tommaso Mainardi
Image registration is the process of determining the correspondence of features between images collected at different times or using different... Sample PDF
Image Registration Algorithms for Applications in Oncology
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Chapter 10
Lena Costaridou, Spyros Skiadopoulos, Anna Karahaliou, Nikolaos Arikidis, George Panayiotakis
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is currently the most effective modality in detecting breast cancer... Sample PDF
Computer-Aided Diagnosis in Breast Imaging: Trends and Challenges
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Chapter 11
E. Kyriacou, C.I. Christodoulou, C. Loizou, M.S. Pattichis, C.S. Pattichis, S. Kakkos
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Chapter 12
Marios Neofytou, Constantinos Pattichis, Vasilios Tanos, Marios Pattichis, Eftyvoulos Kyriacou
The objective of this chapter is to propose a quantitative hysteroscopy imaging analysis system in gynaecological cancer and to provide the current... Sample PDF
Quantitative Analysis of Hysteroscopy Imaging in Gynecological Cancer
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Chapter 13
Thomas V. Kilindris, Kiki Theodorou
Patient anatomy, biochemical response, as well functional evaluation at organ level, are key fields that produce a significant amount of multi modal... Sample PDF
Combining Geometry and Image in Biomedical Systems: The RT TPS Case
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Chapter 14
Ioannis Tsougos, George Loudos, Panagiotis Georgoulias, Konstantina S. Nikita, Kiki Theodorou
Quantitative three-dimensional nuclear medical imaging plays a continuously increasing role in radionuclide dosimetry, allowing the development of... Sample PDF
Internal Radionuclide Dosimetry using Quantitative 3-D Nuclear Medical Imaging
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Chapter 15
Evanthia E. Tripoliti, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis, Konstantia Veliou
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality which can significantly improve our understanding of the brain... Sample PDF
Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Fiber Tractography
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Chapter 16
Anastasios Koutlas, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
The aim of this chapter is to analyze the recent advances in image processing and machine learning techniques with respect to facial expression... Sample PDF
Image Processing and Machine Learning Techniques for Facial Expression Recognition
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Chapter 17
Arcangelo Merla
This chapter presents an overview on recent developments in the field of clinical applications of the functional infrared imaging. The functional... Sample PDF
Developments and Advances in Biomedical Functional Infrared Imaging
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Chapter 18
Aristotelis Chatziioannou, Panagiotis Moulos
The completion of the Human Genome Project and the emergence of high-throughput technologies at the dawn of the new millennium, are rapidly changing... Sample PDF
DNA Microarrays: Analysis and Interpretation
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Chapter 19
Nikolaos Giannakeas, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
Microarray technology allows the comprehensive measurement of the expression level of many genes simultaneously on a common substrate. Typical... Sample PDF
Image Processing and Machine Learning Techniques for the Segmentation of cDNA
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Chapter 20
Petros S. Karvelis, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
Automated chromosome analysis is now becoming routine in most human cytogenetics laboratories. It involves both processing and analysis of digital... Sample PDF
Recent Advances in Automated Chromosome Image Analysis
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Chapter 21
O. Lezoray, G. Lebrun, C. Meurie, C. Charrier, A. Elmotataz, M. Lecluse
The segmentation of microscopic images is a challenging application that can have numerous applications ranging from prognosis to diagnosis.... Sample PDF
Machine Learning in Morphological Segmentation
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Chapter 22
Michael Haefner, Alfred Gangl, Michael Liedlgruber, A. Uhl, Andreas Vecsei, Friedrich Wrba
Wavelet-, Fourier-, and spatial domain-based texture classification methods have been used successfully for classifying zoom-endoscopic colon images... Sample PDF
Pit Pattern Classification Using Multichannel Features and Multiclassification
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Chapter 23
C. Papaodysseus, P. Rousopoulos, D. Arabadjis, M. Panagopoulos, P. Loumou
In this chapter the state of the art is presented in the domain of automatic identification and classification of bodies on the basis of their... Sample PDF
Automatic Identification and Elastic Properties of Deformed Objects Using their Microscopic Images
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Chapter 24
Alexia Giannoula, Richard S.C. Cobbold
“Elastography” or “elasticity imaging” can be defined as the science and methodology of estimating the mechanical properties of a medium (including... Sample PDF
Nonlinear Ultrasound Radiation-Force Elastography
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Chapter 25
Valentina Russo, Roberto Setola
The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview about models and methodologies used for the Dynamic Contrast Enhancement (DCE) analysis. DCE is a... Sample PDF
Dynamic Contrast Enhancement: Analysis's Models and Methodologies
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Chapter 26
George K. Matsopoulos
The accurate estimation of point correspondences is often required in a wide variety of medical image processing applications including image... Sample PDF
Automatic Correspondence Methods towards Point-Based Medical Image Registration: An Evaluation Study
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Chapter 27
Alberto Taboada-Crispi, Hichem Sahli, Denis Hernandez-Pacheco, Alexander Falcon-Ruiz
Various approaches have been taken to detect anomalies, with certain particularities in the medical image scenario, linked to other terms... Sample PDF
Anomaly Detection in Medical Image Analysis
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Chapter 28
C. Delgorge-Rosenberger, C. Rosenberger
The authors present in this chapter an overview on evaluation of medical image compression. The different methodologies used in the literature are... Sample PDF
Evaluation of Medical Image Compression
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Chapter 29
Charalampos Doukas, Ilias Maglogiannis
Medical images are often characterized by high complexity and consist of high resolution image files, introducing thus several issues regarding... Sample PDF
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Chapter 30
Farhang Sahba
Ultrasound imaging now has widespread clinical use. It involves exposing a part of the body to highfrequency sound waves in order to generate images... Sample PDF
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