Immunocomputing for Spatio-Temporal Forecast

Immunocomputing for Spatio-Temporal Forecast

Alexander O. Tarakanov (Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-310-4.ch012
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Abstract

Based on mathematical models of immunocomputing, this chapter describes an approach to spatio-temporal forecast (STF) by intelligent signal processing. The approach includes both low-level feature extraction and highlevel (“intelligent”) pattern recognition. The key model is the formal immune network (FIN) including apoptosis (programmed cell death) and immunization both controlled by cytokines (messenger proteins). Such FIN can be formed from raw signal using discrete tree transform (DTT), singular value decomposition (SVD), and the proposed index of inseparability in comparison with the Renyi entropy. Real-world application is demonstrated on data of space monitoring of the Caspian, Black, and Barents Sea. A surprising result is strong negative correlation between anomalies of sea surface temperature (SST) and sunspot number (SSN). This effect can be utilized for long-term STF.
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1 Introduction

Artificial immune systems (AISs) (Dasgupta 1999; de Castro & Timmis 2002) and immunocomputing (IC) (Tarakanov et al. 2003; Zhao 2005) are developing with the branches of computational intelligence (Tarakanov & Nicosia 2007; Dasgupta & Nino 2008; Tarakanov 2008) like genetic algorithms (Tarakanov A. & Tarakanov Y. 2005) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) also called neurocomputing (Tarakanov A. & Tarakanov Y. 2004). Recent advances in AISs include a stochastic model of immune response (Chao et al. 2004), an aircraft fault detection (Dasgupta et al. 2004), intrusion detection (Dasgupta & Gonzalez 2005) and computational models based on the negative selection process that occurs in the thymus (Dasgupta 2006; Dasgupta & Nino 2008). Recent advances in IC include a concept of biomolecular immunocomputer as a computer controlled fragment of the natural immune system (Goncharova et al. 2005). A connection of IC with brain research leads to promising results in understanding of basic principles of organization of molecular networks and receptor mosaics which are common for the brain and immunity (Agnati et al. 2005ab, 2008; Goncharova & Tarakanov 2007, 2008b). A connection of IC with cellular automata (CA) (Adamatzky 1994) leads to encouraging results in three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics (Tarakanov and Adamatzky 2002) and inspires a novel method of identification of CA (Tarakanov & Prokaev 2007). Recent advances in real-world applications of the IC (Tarakanov 2007a) include signal processing and intrusion detection (Atreas et al. 2003, 2004; Tarakanov et al. 2005b, 2007a) as well as intelligent simulation of hydro-physical fields (Tarakanov et al. 2007bc).

In such general perspective, the objective of this chapter is to develop the IC approach to spatio-temporal forecast (STF) by intelligent signal processing. According to (Cheng & Wang 2007), STF can be considered as data mining or the extraction of unknown and implicit knowledge, structures, spatio-temporal relationships, or patterns not explicitly stored in spatio-temporal data. In this chapter, the IC approach is applied to real-world data of space monitoring of the Caspian, Black, and Barents Sea (NASA 2007). A surprising and controversial result of this application is rather strong negative correlation between anomalies of sea surface temperature (SST) and an index of solar activity – sunspot number (SSN). This effect may be utilized for long-term STF.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Discrete Tree Transform (DTT): Mapping of signal to the tree structure.

Apoptosis: Programmed cell death.

Immunocomputing (IC): Mathematical models of information processing by proteins and immune networks.

Singular Value Decomposition (SVD): Matrix decomposition by singular values and singular vectors.

Formal Immune Network (FIN): Mathematical model of information processing by natural immune network.

Immunization: Training of immune network.

Spatio-Temporal Forecast (STF): Prediction of values of a parameter (e.g. sea surface temperature) over time and/or space.

Cytokines: Messenger proteins that provide intercellular communication within the immune system.

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Lipo Wang
Preface
Hongwei Mo
Chapter 1
Fabio Freschi, Carlos A. Coello Coello, Maurizio Repetto
This chapter aims to review the state of the art in algorithms of multiobjective optimization with artificial immune systems (MOAIS). As it will be... Sample PDF
Multiobjective Optimization and Artificial Immune Systems: A Review
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Chapter 2
Jun Chen, Mahdi Mahfouf
The primary objective of this chapter is to introduce Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) as a relatively new bio-inspired optimization technique and to... Sample PDF
Artificial Immune Systems as a Bio-Inspired Optimization Technique and Its Engineering Applications
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Chapter 3
Licheng Jiao, Maoguo Gong, Wenping Ma
Many immue-inspired algorithms are based on the abstractions of one or several immunology theories, such as clonal selection, negative selection... Sample PDF
An Artificial Immune Dynamical System for Optimization
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Chapter 4
Malgorzata Lucinska, Slawomir T. Wierzchon
Multi-agent systems (MAS), consist of a number of autonomous agents, which interact with one-another. To make such interactions successful, they... Sample PDF
An Immune Inspired Algorithm for Learning Strategies in a Pursuit-Evasion Game
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Chapter 5
Luis Fernando Niño Vasquez, Fredy Fernando Muñoz Mopan, Camilo Eduardo Prieto Salazar, José Guillermo Guarnizo Marín
Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) have been widely used in different fields such as robotics, computer science, and multi-agent systems with high... Sample PDF
Applications of Artificial Immune Systems in Agents
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Chapter 6
Xingquan Zuo
Inspired from the robust control principle, a robust scheduling method is proposed to solve uncertain scheduling problems. The uncertain scheduling... Sample PDF
An Immune Algorithm Based Robust Scheduling Methods
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Chapter 7
Fabio Freschi, Maurizio Repetto
The increasing cost of energy and the introduction of micro-generation facilities and the changes in energy production systems require new... Sample PDF
Artificial Immune System in the Management of Complex Small Scale Cogeneration Systems
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Chapter 8
Krzysztof Ciesielski, Mieczyslaw A. Klopotek, Slawomir T. Wierzchon
In this chapter the authors discuss an application of an immune-based algorithm for extraction and visualization of clusters structure in large... Sample PDF
Applying the Immunological Network Concept to Clustering Document Collections
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Chapter 9
Xiangrong Zhang, Fang Liu
The problem of feature selection is fundamental in various tasks like classification, data mining, image processing, conceptual learning, and so on.... Sample PDF
Feature Selection Based on Clonal Selection Algorithm: Evaluation and Application
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Chapter 10
Yong-Sheng Ding, Xiang-Feng Zhang, Li-Hong Ren
Future Internet should be capable of extensibility, survivability, mobility, and adaptability to the changes of different users and network... Sample PDF
Immune Based Bio-Network Architecture and its Simulation Platform for Future Internet
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Chapter 11
Tao Gong
Static Web immune system is an important applicatiion of artificial immune system, and it is also a good platform to develop new immune computing... Sample PDF
A Static Web Immune System and Its Robustness Analysis
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Chapter 12
Alexander O. Tarakanov
Based on mathematical models of immunocomputing, this chapter describes an approach to spatio-temporal forecast (STF) by intelligent signal... Sample PDF
Immunocomputing for Spatio-Temporal Forecast
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Chapter 13
Fu Dongmei
In engineering application, the characteristics of the control system are entirely determined by the system controller once the controlled object... Sample PDF
Research of Immune Controllers
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Chapter 14
Xiaojun Bi
In fact, image segmentation can be regarded as a constrained optimization problem, and a series of optimization strategies can be used to complete... Sample PDF
Immune Programming Applications in Image Segmentation
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Chapter 15
Xin Wang, Wenjian Luo, Zhifang Li, Xufa Wang
A hardware immune system for the error detection of MC8051 IP core is designed in this chapter. The binary string to be detected by the hardware... Sample PDF
A Hardware Immune System for MC8051 IP Core
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Chapter 16
Mark Burgin, Eugene Eberbach
There are different models of evolutionary computations: genetic algorithms, genetic programming, etc. This chapter presents mathematical... Sample PDF
On Foundations of Evolutionary Computation: An Evolutionary Automata Approach
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Chapter 17
Terrence P. Fries
Path planning is an essential component in the control software for an autonomous mobile robot. Evolutionary strategies are employed to determine... Sample PDF
Evolutionary Path Planning for Robot Navigation Under Varying Terrain Conditions
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Chapter 18
Konstantinos Konstantinidis, Georgios Ch. Sirakoulis, Ioannis Andreadis
The aim of this chapter is to provide the reader with a Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) system which incorporates AI through ant colony... Sample PDF
Ant Colony Optimization for Use in Content Based Image Retrieval
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Chapter 19
Miroslav Bursa, Lenka Lhotska
The chapter concentrates on the use of swarm intelligence in data mining. It focuses on the problem of medical data clustering. Clustering is a... Sample PDF
Ant Colonies and Data Mining
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Chapter 20
Bo-Suk Yang
This chapter describes a hybrid artificial life optimization algorithm (ALRT) based on emergent colonization to compute the solutions of global... Sample PDF
Artificial Life Optimization Algorithm and Applications
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Chapter 21
Martin Macaš, Lenka Lhotská
A novel binary optimization technique is introduced called Social Impact Theory based Optimizer (SITO), which is based on social psychology model of... Sample PDF
Optimizing Society: The Social Impact Theory Based Optimizer
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Chapter 22
James F. Peters, Shabnam Shahfar
The problem considered in this chapter is how to use the observed behavior of organisms as a basis for machine learning. The proposed approach for... Sample PDF
Ethology-Based Approximate Adaptive Learning: A Near Set Approach
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Chapter 23
Dingju Zhu
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Nature Inspired Parallel Computing
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Chapter 24
Tang Mo, Wang Kejun, Zhang Jianmin, Zheng Liying
An understanding of the human brain’s local function has improved in recent years. But the cognition of human brain’s working process as a whole is... Sample PDF
Fuzzy Chaotic Neural Networks
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