Impact of E-Government Implementation on Poverty Reduction in Rural India: Selected Case Studies

Impact of E-Government Implementation on Poverty Reduction in Rural India: Selected Case Studies

Sandeep Kaur (PSG College of Arts and Science, India) and N. Mathiyalagan (PSG College of Arts and Science, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-713-3.ch006
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ICTs in general and e-governance in particular offer tremendous opportunities for improving demand-driven transparent and accountable service delivery targeting the underprivileged. The objective of this chapter is to examine the effects of E-government implementation in the context of widespread poverty in India through an extensive secondary data analysis on selected pro-poor initiatives in reducing poverty and improving rural livelihoods. Analysis also includes various contexts in which these ICT based interventions operate. Specific recommendations are made to involve the socially excluded groups in the design, implementation and access to e-government services. Governments to design appropriate public policies in implementing socially inclusive e-government strategies in the emerging information society draw the conclusion.
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1. Introduction

The new information and communications technologies are among the driving forces of globalization. They are bringing people together, and bringing decision makers unprecedented new tools for development. At the same time, however, the gap between information ‘haves’ and ‘have-nots’ is widening, and there is a real danger that the world’s poor will be excluded from the emerging knowledge-based global economy. (Kofi Annan, Secretary-General, 2002).

Mahatma Gandhi’s vision of the true India in its villages has led several central and state governments to emphasize on grassroots governance for bridging a growing rural-urban digital divide. ICT impact on the poor is at an early stage, but the potential is being demonstrated at the micro, intermediate and macro levels (Hanna, 2003), thus providing enormous opportunities in remote areas in health care, education, other forms of public services.

India is home to 22% of the World’s poor with 35% of its billion plus population living on less than US $1 per day; more than 900 million people surviving on incomes less than US $2 per day and poverty being more concentrated among SCs/STs (24% of the total population of India - 252 million people). Thus, poverty reduction is considered fundamental for the achievement of international goals (Planning Commission, 10th Five Year Plan [2002-2007], Chapter 3.2, Page No 293). The Human Development Report (2005) ranked India 127th among 177 countries; 58th among 103 developing countries on the Human Poverty Index (HPI-1). This call for an extensive and continued efforts from government and international agencies in terms of sound macroeconomic policies; open trade relations; increases in human and physical capital; good governance; sound legal, incentives and regulatory frameworks; an adequately regulated and supervised financial sector; health, education and social services that reach the poor, women effectively; quality infrastructure and public services to promote rural development and livable cities; and policies to promote environmental and human sustainability, thereby, helping in the delivery of social and economic benefits across a broader base of the populace.

Indian ICT sector is witnessing a rapid expansion in telecom markets in the world with a target of 500 million telephone subscribers by 2010; PC penetration of 65 per 1,000 (from the existing 14 per 1,000) by 2008. ICTs empower the people at the grassroots level to access information and service delivery effectively is the underlying philosophy of the National e-Governance Action Plan of India (2003-2007) launched by the Central Government at a cost of Rs.12,400 crore ($1.3 billion) to connect 600,000 villages through 100,000 broadband-enabled multipurpose computer kiosks or CSCs by March 2008 through participation by states, government agencies and corporates. This will enable services like e-learning, e-teaching, ehealth, telemedicine, e-farming, e-tourism, e-entertainment and e-commerce in all of India’s 600000 villages (Chandrasekhar, 2006).

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Ganesh P. Sahu, Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Vishanth Weerakkody
Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Marijn Janssen
Ganesh P. Sahu, Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Vishanth Weerakkody
Ganesh P. Sahu, Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Vishanth Weerakkody
Chapter 1
Bharat Maheshwari, Vinod Kumar, Uma Kumar, Vedmani Sharan
Electronic government (E-government) portals are considered one of the most popular conduits for offering government services online. Successful... Sample PDF
A Framework for E-Government Portal Development
Chapter 2
Petter Gottschalk
The mobilization of electronic information across government organizations has the potential of modernizing and transforming information exchanges.... Sample PDF
E-Government Interoperability: Frameworks for Aligned Development
Chapter 3
Mahfuz Ashraf, Jo Hanisch, Paul Swatman
While there is hope that ICT interventions will lead to socio-economic development in developing countries, there is a dearth of research concerning... Sample PDF
An Explorative Study of Dynamic Influences on ICT-Led Developmental Impact at Community Level
Chapter 4
Marc Holzer, Aroon Manoharan
The chapter is based on a study of global municipal Web portals conducted through a collaboration between the E-Governance Institute at... Sample PDF
Tracking the Digital Divide: Studying the Association of the Global Digital Divide with Societal Divide
Chapter 5
Charru Malhotra, V.M. Chariar, L.K. Das
The speed and outreach enabled by information and communication technologies (ICT) have improved mechanisms of delivery of information, services and... Sample PDF
Making ICT more Meaningful for Governance in the Rural Areas: Role of the Community Knowledge Systems
Chapter 6
Sandeep Kaur, N. Mathiyalagan
ICTs in general and e-governance in particular offer tremendous opportunities for improving demand-driven transparent and accountable service... Sample PDF
Impact of E-Government Implementation on Poverty Reduction in Rural India: Selected Case Studies
Chapter 7
Subhajit Choudhury, Sudhir Kumar
The chapter introduces information communication technology and its importance with respect to digital divide. Digital divides is the connotation of... Sample PDF
E-Governance: Tool for E-Democracy and Citizen Empowerment in the Horizon of Information Technology Era in Developing Society in India, Nepal and Bangladesh
Chapter 8
Siddhartha Ghosh
E-governance is the public sector’s use of information and communication technologies (ICT) with the aim of improving information and service... Sample PDF
Application of Natural Language Processing (NLP) Techniques in E–Governance
Chapter 9
Anand Agrawal
A primary goal of e-governance is providing online-services to citizens over the internet (Web portals) to facilitate government-to-citizen (G2C)... Sample PDF
Assessing E-Governance Online-Service Quality (EGOSQ)
Chapter 10
Sundresan Perumal
As the world is streaming into an electronic world there are still huge communities that don’t understand the evolution government into the era of... Sample PDF
The Success Model of Evolution from Government to E-Governance
Chapter 11
Shafi Al-Shafi, Vishanth Weerakkody
This chapter examines the adoption of free wireless internet parks (iPark) by Qatari citizens as means of accessing electronic services from public... Sample PDF
Technology Acceptance of Free Wireless Internet Park Initiatives
Chapter 12
Yogesh K. Dwivedi
The main purpose of this chapter is to provide readers an exhaustive list of references focused upon electronic government related issues.The... Sample PDF
A Bibliometric Analysis of Electronic Government Research
Chapter 13
C.S.R. Prabhu
The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) proposes citizen service delivery up to the village level through various channels including village kiosks.... Sample PDF
Towards an E-Governance Grid for India (E-GGI): An Architectural Framework for Citizen Services Delivery
Chapter 14
Swamy Tribhuvananda H.V., Gopakumar K.
ICTs are increasingly being recognized by the people across the globe as essential tools of development – tools that can empower them, enhance... Sample PDF
E-Halli: An Opportunity to Become Rural Entrepreneurs
Chapter 15
Moaman Al-Busaidy, Vishanth Weerakkody
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E-Government Implementation in Oman: A Preliminary Investigation
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