Incentives for Resource Sharing in Ad Hoc Networks: Going Beyond Rationality

Incentives for Resource Sharing in Ad Hoc Networks: Going Beyond Rationality

Panayotis Antoniadis (Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, France)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-715-7.ch011
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Abstract

The goal of this chapter is to analyze the incentive issues that arise in multi-hop ad hoc networks when their nodes are potentially mobile devices controlled by independent self-interested end-users. The author decomposes the problem into its economic and technological dimensions according to which he categorizes the numerous proposed solutions. He then analyzes certain drawbacks of the economics oriented approach and argues for the need to go beyond the rationality assumption. This is to exploit a variety of powerful more intrinsic, social, human motivations for encouraging participation and resource sharing in ad hoc networks. Existing successful online communities provide a good starting point for designing social software that can provide cross-layer social incentives for resource sharing. In this chapter, the author motivates this novel but challenging approach and provides some insights toward coming closer to its ambitious objective.
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Introduction

For over a decade, mobile ad hoc networks (or MANETs) have been in the centre of attention of the networking research community. They have created significant anticipation for the new step in the telecommunications history: It is expected that people will be transformed to “smartmobs” that will self-organize in creating their own ad hoc communications networks to exchange all types of information, provide access to Internet gateways, socialize, and participate themselves or through their device in a large variety of peer-to-peer applications like file sharing and ubiquitous computing.

Yet until now this vision has not become a reality although significant progress has been made over the last years regarding the wireless technology (bluetooth, 802.11), the capabilities and resources of the portable devices, and the required protocols for routing, media access, and power control. Maybe a few more steps are required in order to reach the point to enable an interesting set of applications on top of a general multi-hop ad hoc network. But people are most probably the critical piece that is still missing: Users are the key component of a mobile ad hoc network because they are both the providers and the consumers of the service (and this is so at all layers of the system’s architecture). In other words, MANETs are peer-to-peer (p2p) systems whose successful operation depends highly on the users’ desire to participate and contribute the resources of their devices.

Participation and resource sharing are the main requirements for all p2p systems to bootstrap and survive. Significant part of ongoing research is devoted on the design of incentive mechanisms for resource sharing. However, in the case of mobile ad hoc networks this problem becomes more challenging due to the critical mass that is required for the creation of an operational ad-hoc network, the short time scales in which users might reside in the same place, and the often scarce resources that should be contributed (i.e. battery, processing power, and bandwidth). Additionally, more research is required in terms of application design to encourage participation, since the “killer application” seems to be still missing. Finally, one should take into account also psychological factors that are related to the fact that people are not used to this direct form of communication with strangers.

The most fundamental resource sharing issue in this context is packet forwarding. There is a wide variety of economic mechanisms proposed in the literature. They either assume the existence of a virtual or real currency management system or they follow a reciprocity-based approach that adopts the notion of reputation in accounting for a user’s past behavior (and provide rewards or punishment accordingly). In addition to packet forwarding, however, there are many more levels of cooperation in an ad hoc network. So, there is also work on incentive compatible topology formation and energy efficient routing, and incentives for cooperation at the lower layers of the network architecture (media access, and power control).

In general, there are two different dimensions in the problem formulation: the economic and the technological. The economic dimension is related to the conceptual mechanisms, the high-level rules of the system that are required to decide on certain levels of consumption and/or contribution for different users based on certain assumptions their utility, cost, and behavior (the economic model). The technological dimension is related to the technical means for enforcing the chosen incentive mechanism. That is, the mechanisms required to monitor and assess the behavior of users, to account for it over time, and implement the rewards and punishments prescribed by the incentive mechanisms according to each individual’s behavior. Unfortunately, the constraints that are posed by technology in terms of enforcement are often the “bottleneck” in this environment, and the choices for the potential high-level incentive mechanisms become restricted.

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgment
Boon-Chong Seet
Chapter 1
Raphaël Kummer, Peter Kropf, Pascal Felber
The most important characteristics of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) such as broadcast and multihop communication, limited resources (particularly... Sample PDF
P2P Information Lookup, Collection, and Distribution in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
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Chapter 2
Thomas Repantis, Vana Kalogeraki
In this chapter the authors study the problems of data dissemination and query routing in mobile peerto- peer networks. They provide a taxonomy and... Sample PDF
Data Dissemination and Query Routing in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks
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Chapter 3
Jie Feng, Lisong Xu, Byrav Ramamurthy
With the evolution of wireless technologies, mobile networks can provide much more interesting services and resources to users than before.... Sample PDF
Overlay Construction in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks
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Chapter 4
Thomas Kunz, Abdulbaset Gaddah, Li Li
Peer-to-Peer computing is a popular, relatively new, distributed computing paradigm. It allows for a flexible set of participants to coordinate... Sample PDF
Mobility Support in a P2P System for Publish/Subscribe Applications
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Chapter 5
Leonardo B. Oliveira, Isabela G. Siqueira, Daniel F. Macedo, José M. Nogueira, Antonio A.F. Loureiro
Both Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are decentralized self-organizing networks with a dynamic topology, used to... Sample PDF
P2P over MANETs: Application and Network Layers' Routing Assessment
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Chapter 6
Fotis Loukos, Helen Karatza
Mobile Peer-to-Peer networks are an emerging topic in networking. One of the major usages is the cooperation between peers. The aim of this chapter... Sample PDF
Enabling Cooperation in MANET-Based Peer-to-Peer Systems
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Chapter 7
Tobias Hoßfeld, Daniel Schlosser, Kurt Tutschku, Phuoc Tran-Gia
The performance of P2P content distribution in cellular networks depends highly on the cooperation and coordination of heterogeneous and often... Sample PDF
Cooperation Strategies for P2P Content Distribution in Cellular Mobile Networks: Considering Selfishness and Heterogeneity
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Chapter 8
Tobias Hoßfeld, Michael Duelli, Dirk Staehle, Phuoc Tran-Gia
The performance of P2P content distribution in cellular networks depends highly on the cooperation and coordination of heterogeneous and often... Sample PDF
Cooperation Strategies for P2P Content Distribution in Cellular Mobile Networks: Considering Mobility and Heterogeneity
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Chapter 9
Wei Wu, Kian-Lee Tan
Caching and prefetching are two effective ways for mobile peers to improve access latency in mobile environments. With short-range communication... Sample PDF
Peer-Based Collaborative Caching and Prefetching in Mobile Broadcast
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Chapter 10
Mark Kai-Ho Yeung, Yu-Kwong Kwok
The widespread deployment of competing wireless technologies has created new research opportunities. In particular, the authors consider media... Sample PDF
Wireless Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming: Incentives and Resource Management Issues
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Chapter 11
Panayotis Antoniadis
The goal of this chapter is to analyze the incentive issues that arise in multi-hop ad hoc networks when their nodes are potentially mobile devices... Sample PDF
Incentives for Resource Sharing in Ad Hoc Networks: Going Beyond Rationality
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Chapter 12
Johann van der Merwe, Dawoud Dawoud
Group communication in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) generally occurs in the form of dynamic peer groups (DPGs). This chapter reviews the existing... Sample PDF
Key Management for Dynamic Peer Groups in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
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Chapter 13
James Walkerdine, Peter Phillips, Simon Lock
The growth of mobile devices with near PC equivalent capabilities has brought with it the possibility of mobile Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems. However... Sample PDF
A Tool Supported Methodology for Developing Secure Mobile P2P Systems
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Chapter 14
Spyridon L. Tompros
Enabled by the emergence of high-speed Internet access in last mile communications, P2P systems have witnessed significant growth in the recent... Sample PDF
Integration and Interworking of Fixed and Mobile P2P Systems
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Chapter 15
Erkki Harjula, Jani Hautakorpi, Nicklas Beijar, Mika Ylianttila
Due to the increasing popularity of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) computing, the information technology industry and standardization organizations have started... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer SIP for Mobile Computing: Challenges and Solutions
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Chapter 16
Kurt Tutschku, Andreas Berl, Tobias Hossfeld, Hermann de Meer
The telecommunication industry has recently seen two areas with very high growth rates: cellular networks, for example, GSM (Global System for... Sample PDF
Mobile P2P in Cellular Mobile Networks: Architecture and Performance
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Chapter 17
Norihiro Ishikawa, Hiromitsu Sumino, Takeshi Kato, Johan Hjelm, Shingo Murakami, Kazuhiro Kitagawa, Nobuo Saito
Compared with traditional Internet technologies, peer-to-peer technologies has functions to realize resource discovery, resource sharing, and load... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer Networking Platform and Its Applications for Mobile Phones
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Chapter 18
Raphaël Kummer, Peter Kropf, Jean-Frédéric Wagen, Timothée Maret
Many innovative P2P algorithms designed for mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) have been designed to scale smoothly when handling a very large number... Sample PDF
Evaluation Platform for Large Scale P2P Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
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Chapter 19
Alf Inge Wang
This chapter presents the Peer2Me mobile peer-to-peer framework, Peer2Me applications, and discusses the experiences from using the Peer2Me... Sample PDF
Mobile Peer-to-Peer Collaborative Framework and Applications
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Chapter 20
Antônio Tadeu A. Gomes, Artur Ziviani, Luciana S. Lima, Markus Endler
This chapter surveys the approaches to service discovery that are relevant to mobile peer-to-peer systems in a variety of scenarios. More... Sample PDF
Service Discovery Approaches to Mobile Peer-to-Peer Computing
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Chapter 21
Marco Conti, Franca Delmastro, Andrea Passarella
Recently, the popularity of p2p computing paradigm has been increasing, especially in the mobile environments, due to the large use of mobile... Sample PDF
Context-Aware P2P Over Opportunistic Networks
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