Information and Communication Technology Management

Information and Communication Technology Management

Robert S. Friedman (New Jersey Institute of Technology, USA), Desiree M. Roberts (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, NY, USA) and Jonathan D. Linton (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, NY, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-038-7.ch009
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Abstract

In this chapter on information and communication technology management, we retain a chronological order to emphasize the development of research interests and approaches as technology itself grows more complex, sophisticated, and increasingly integral to a firm’s innovative ends and operative strategies. We begin with two articles concerned with behavior—specifically, attitudes and decision behavior in the early realm of management information systems. Robey (1979) looks at the attitudes of members of sales departments to understand how individual predispositions to computerized information systems affect human performance with them, ultimately suggesting that the identification of expectancy factors can coalesce into a model of user reactions and motivations toward MIS. In the same year, Zmud investigates information processing and decision behavior, and their effect on the successful development of an organization’s management information systems
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Introduction

In this chapter on information and communication technology management, we retain a chronological order to emphasize the development of research interests and approaches as technology itself grows more complex, sophisticated, and increasingly integral to a firm’s innovative ends and operative strategies. We begin with two articles concerned with behaviorspecifically, attitudes and decision behavior in the early realm of management information systems. Robey (1979) looks at the attitudes of members of sales departments to understand how individual predispositions to computerized information systems affect human performance with them, ultimately suggesting that the identification of expectancy factors can coalesce into a model of user reactions and motivations toward MIS. In the same year, Zmud investigates information processing and decision behavior, and their effect on the successful development of an organization’s management information systems.

In the 1980s, the focus shifts away from behaviors and toward methodologies and practices of MIS development and their implementation. Similarly to Zmud (1979), Ginzberg (1981) presents the results of his study involving MIS users’ expectations prior to the systems’ implementation to see how and if these expectations could aid the MIS development process. McFarlan’s 1984 article addresses CEOs, primarily, urging them to be aware of the double-edged nature of MIS, as these systems can both create and preclude entry into new domains. That same year, Parsons offers a tri-level framework that helps senior management determine the effectiveness of information technologies and the prospective impacts that they might have on their organizations.

It is fitting that theory and implementation of strategies regarding end user involvement is the third and concluding section of this chapter, as the progression of information and communication technologies from the mid-1980s through the current time has shifted focus to the individualas customer, as development partner, and as arbiter of product design and modeling. Ives and Olson’s 1984 article provides a review of the research on user involvement and its relationship to system success. Stefik et al. (1987) provide an early view of computer-assisted collaborative work tools. Davis, Bagozzi, and Warshaw (1989) look toward the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to discuss when and why people accept or reject IT. Melone (1990) provides a comprehensive assessment of a user satisfaction construct, looking at how end user attitudes function as a factor of it. Dougherty (1992) offers her interpretation of both innovation literature and innovators’ practice with the marketplace from a philosophical vantage point. She suggests that there is a positive correlation between product design and customer need, that inter-departmental collaboration is essential to IT product development, and that innovators do not necessarily seek out the benefits of such collaboration when tying technological and marketplace issues together as their products are developed. Sethi and King (1994) supply survey results from 185 top IS executives regarding their views on the types of applications that augment their competitive advantage. DeSanctis and Poole (1994) approach information systems development from a strategic and organizational (as opposed to a user-based) vantage point with their adaptive structuration theory (AST), a framework to be implemented when examining organizations for signs of change derived from using IT. Orlikowski (1996) introduces situated practice as a methodology to understand the relationships between organizational change and IT, and an alternative to established perspectives such as planned change, technological imperative, and punctuated equilibrium. Venkatesh and Davis (2000) conclude this chapter with a discussion of Davis’s Technology Acceptance Model, but with consideration given to additional variables and their effects on perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of information technologies.

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Steve Walsh
Acknowledgment
Chapter 1
Robert S. Friedman, Desiree M. Roberts, Jonathan D. Linton
This book differs from other academic works on the management of technology and innovation because it focuses on the seminal research of the field.... Sample PDF
Introduction to the Field of Technology Innovation Management
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Chapter 2
R&D Process Models  (pages 31-54)
Robert S. Friedman, Desiree M. Roberts, Jonathan D. Linton
This chapter on research and development processes and models begins with a section concerning the economics and finance of R&D. Liberatore and... Sample PDF
R&D Process Models
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Chapter 3
Robert S. Friedman, Desiree M. Roberts, Jonathan D. Linton
This chapter on innovative practice supporting technological development has several thematic overlays that show some consistency in terms of... Sample PDF
Technology Development and Innovative Practice
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Chapter 4
Robert S. Friedman, Desiree M. Roberts, Jonathan D. Linton
This chapter discusses how information that supports innovation flows throughout an organization, the construction and effects of team composition... Sample PDF
Social Influence and Human Interaction with Technology
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Chapter 5
Robert S. Friedman, Desiree M. Roberts, Jonathan D. Linton
This chapter introduces the seminal literature addressing technological diffusion, innovative product diversification, and the organizational... Sample PDF
Diffusion and Innovation: An Organizational Perspective
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Chapter 6
Robert S. Friedman, Desiree M. Roberts, Jonathan D. Linton
This chapter on the role of knowledge in the operation of organizations consists of two main thrusts: the effects of knowledge (accrual... Sample PDF
Knowledge and Change in Organizations
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Chapter 7
Robert S. Friedman, Desiree M. Roberts, Jonathan D. Linton
There are three dominant themes that run through this chapter on organizational innovation strategy: the rate and nature of change; attitudes... Sample PDF
Organizational Innovation Strategy
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Chapter 8
New Product Development  (pages 192-215)
Robert S. Friedman, Desiree M. Roberts, Jonathan D. Linton
The articles addressed in this chapter on new product development can be classified in two general categories—papers that address the internal... Sample PDF
New Product Development
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Chapter 9
Robert S. Friedman, Desiree M. Roberts, Jonathan D. Linton
In this chapter on information and communication technology management, we retain a chronological order to emphasize the development of research... Sample PDF
Information and Communication Technology Management
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Chapter 10
Robert S. Friedman, Desiree M. Roberts, Jonathan D. Linton
It is beyond question how ubiquitous and powerful computing has become for commerce, communication, and culture. As the articles addressed in this... Sample PDF
Open Source and Software Development Innovation
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Chapter 11
Robert S. Friedman, Desiree M. Roberts, Jonathan D. Linton
Although the goal of this book is to provide foundational knowledge through indepth consideration of the seminal literature in the technology... Sample PDF
Directions in the Field of Technology Innovation Management
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About the Authors