Managerial responsibilities for information technology (IT) have, increasingly, been consolidated in the person of the “chief information officer” (CIO). Despite the increased prevalence of the CIO position, no one model has emerged that explains what can realistically be expected of the CIO in various organizational contexts. This is particularly true of the public-sector CIO. In this chapter, insight into the problems, challenges, and requisite competencies for public-sector CIOs is provided. The conceptual framework of CIO competence presented here is multidimensional and interdisciplinary in nature. In the chapter, the importance of considering the contextual setting in which CIOs operate in understanding the competencies he or she deems critical to the CIO role is illustrated. The competencies deemed critical by CIOs with differing perceptions of the role of IT, as well as those deemed critical by CIOs managing different size IT units, are contrasted. The discussion should inform academicians developing IT management curricula and practitioners engaged in CIO search and development activities.