Information System Model for Global Emergency-Response System in the Context of Natural Disaster Recovery Management System

Information System Model for Global Emergency-Response System in the Context of Natural Disaster Recovery Management System

Salem Al-Marri (Leeds Metropolitan University, UK) and Muthu Ramachandran (Leeds Metropolitan University, UK)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-731-7.ch029
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Emergency needs occurs anywhere anytime by naturally, manually and accidentally in addition to worldwide death by hunger and poverty. As such, the need of response system should be there to tackle this emergency. Natural disasters are increasingly frequent in recent years taking peoples lives and destructions, for example, Hurricane Katrina US 2006 and Tsunami Asia 2004. This study proposes a model for Classification of Natural Disasters and Catastrophic Failures activity model. This model consists of hierarchical roles and activities. It is critical that organization must support and provide infrastructure for managing and preventing disasters and its aftermath to a full recovery. Furthermore, this chapter also proposes a triangular model for global emergency response systems, which can be used as a preventive measure, as well as post-recovery management system for managing and tackling emergencies. This model also proposes the use of emerging technologies such as ubiquitous computing and wireless communications systems. Now-a-days people use these wireless technologies to communicate in case of a disaster. Lastly, the study proposes another two models namely the Disaster Risks categorization model, which help identify and to assess the threat levels.
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The term “disaster” has been defined by different scholars in different ways (Van et al. 2007) have identified a set of characteristics, in addition to the list identified by Hiatt (2000) for the definition of a disaster: Surprise, Insufficient information, Escalating flow of information, Loss of control, Intense scrutiny from outside, Siege mentality, Panic, Short-term focus, Physical injury, Loss of business operations, Loss of employee morale and motivation, Loss of team co-operation, Non-integrity of enterprise information and data control, Inefficient information technology systems, Inadequate security in place, Lack of safety procedures and training – has been used to define the term. However, if we analyse the different terminologies we can see that they refer to the same situation but in different ways. Global technology has been recently affecting different fields in our life as it has been effectively employed to many domains such as e-commerce, control systems, information gathering and management and other areas of similar interest. The natural disasters in USA and Asia in 1994, the 9/11 attack revealed that people lives and both technical and constructed infrastructure can be easily damaged. The increasing use of technology put more stress and uncertainties when disasters happen. According to a report by the secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (IFRCRCS, 2004), over than 478,100 people were killed, more than 2.5 billion people were affected and about $ 690 billion losses in economy caused by natural and man-made disasters. Disasters triggered by hydro-meteorological hazards amounted for 97% of the total people affected by disasters, and 60% of the total economic losses (Shaw 2006).

It is evident that each type of a disaster has a different impact and each country and government has a different way to deal with such incidents. Therefore, it is essential to design an appropriate policy and apply successful strategy that can minimize the threat of disasters. Developing a global emergency management information network that provides electronic access to emergency management knowledge would be crucial. However, the emergency management coordination processes did not act effectively and broke down in the wake of the aforementioned disasters (Shaw 2006).

Moreover, the most advanced information systems and technologies did even contribute to relief the affected populations. When hurricane Katrina and Tsunami happened, the affected people relied to basic web sites to search for their friends or families instead of using information resources provided by government and professional relief organizations. In the wake of Tsunami, software engineers had to create other alternatives that they had created voluntarily to build a basic emergency response system (Aljazeera, 2005). This disaster made researchers and practitioners in emergency management to reconsider the function of information system in case of an emergency response. The system design, development, use, and evaluation of emergency response information systems obviously needs to take a far more prominent place on the agenda of researchers, emergency managers and policy makers worldwide.

Existing information system models have enormous challenges that have been identified over many years. However, current studies on information system models for large-scale projects are limited. Therefore, the main aims of this research are to integrate information systems models with project management strategies:

  • Identified specific management roles to tackle large scale natural disaster recover planning and prevention techniques

  • Clear guidelines on information flow and person responsibilities as this can be very difficult in large organisations that are linked as in government departments.

  • Clear identification of contingency planning guidelines, information flow, timing, and specific roles.

  • Integrating risk management strategies to help manage disaster recovery and contingency planning

  • A model for disaster categorisation to help us to identify common pattern of events

  • A globally integrated model that helps integrate people, technology, and disasters

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Michael Rosemann
Muthu Ramachandran, Rogério Atem de Carvalho
Chapter 1
Chetankumar Patel, Muthu Ramachandran
Developing software that meets the customers or stakeholders’ needs and expectation is the ultimate goal of the software development methodology. To... Sample PDF
Best Practices Guidelines for Agile Requirements Engineering Practices
Chapter 2
Jean-Louis Boulanger
This chapter resumes the requirements engineering in a model-based methodology for embedded automotive software. The methodology relies on two... Sample PDF
Requirements Engineering in a Model-Based Methodology for Embedded Automotive Software
Chapter 3
Ernest Mnkandla
This chapter aims to reveal agile techniques that have been applied to software development and have resulted in meaningful improvements in software... Sample PDF
Agile Software Engineering
Chapter 4
Mike Barker, Kenichi Matsumoto, Katsuro Inoue
This chapter describes the evolution of approaches to empirical software engineering from goal and data-driven to the latest purchaser-centered... Sample PDF
Putting a TAG on Software: Purchaser-Centered Software Engineering
Chapter 5
Amir H. Khan, Atif M. Memon
While successful at increasing code churn rates, global software development and evolution suffers from several quality assurance challenges. First... Sample PDF
Enhancing Testing Technologies for Globalization of Software Engineering and Productivity
Chapter 6
Keqing He, Chong Wang, Yangfan He, Yutao Ma, Peng Liang
With the continuous development and rapid progress of information techniques, complexity and scale of information systems are expanding... Sample PDF
Theory of Ontology and Meta-Modeling and the Standard: An Enabler for Semantic Interoperability
Chapter 7
Chetankumar Patel, Muthu Ramachandran
This chapter describes an ongoing process to define a suitable process improvement model for story cards based requirement engineering process and... Sample PDF
Story Card Process Improvement Framework for Agile Requirements
Chapter 8
Requirements Traceability  (pages 102-120)
Elias Canhadas Genvigir, Nandamudi Lankalapalli Vijaykumar
This chapter presents a research about the Software Requirements Traceability. The main elements of traceability, definitions, problems and... Sample PDF
Requirements Traceability
Chapter 9
Sathya Ganeshan, Muthu Ramachandran
Software Product Lines have been in the scene of software development since the 1970s. Throughout this time, it has changed from a hot topic that... Sample PDF
Software Product Lines to Faster Achieving Productivity
Chapter 10
T.R.Gopalakrishnan Nair, R. Selvarani, Muthu Ramachandran
This chapter discusses a comprehensive analysis model of the concurrent software industry which is a collection of different sub-models interacting... Sample PDF
Comprehensive Software Industry Analysis Model (CSIAM)
Chapter 11
R. Selvarani, T.R.Gopalakrishnan Nair, Muthu Ramachandran, Kamakshi Prasad
The complexity of modern software, the commercial constraints and the expectation for high quality product demands the accurate fault prediction... Sample PDF
Software Metrics Evaluation Based on Entropy
Chapter 12
Susan Entwisle, Sita Ramakrishnan, Elizabeth Kendall
Programming languages provide exception handling mechanisms to structure fault tolerant activities within software systems. However, the use of... Sample PDF
Model-Driven Exception Management Case Study
Chapter 13
Pankaj Kamthan
In this chapter, the development and evolution of mobile applications is viewed from an engineering perspective. A methodology for deploying... Sample PDF
Using Patterns for Engineering High-Quality Mobile Applications
Chapter 14
Combinatorial Testing  (pages 196-208)
Renée C. Bryce, Yu Lei, D. Richard Kuhn, Raghu Kacker
Software systems today are complex and have many possible configurations. Products released with inadequate testing can cause bodily harm, result in... Sample PDF
Combinatorial Testing
Chapter 15
Miguel Jiménez, Mario Piattini, Aurora Vizcaíno
In last years, software development activity tends to be decentralized, thus expanding greater development efforts towards more attractive zones for... Sample PDF
A Systematic Review of Distributed Software Development: Problems and Solutions
Chapter 16
Swapan Bhattacharya, Ananya Kanjilal, Sabnam Sengupta
Software testing has gained immense importance in the present competitive world of developing software more quickly, more efficiently and more... Sample PDF
Tools and Techniques for Model Based Testing
Chapter 17
Hiroshi Wada, Junichi Suzuki, Adam Malinowski, Katsuya Oba
Traditional Model Driven Development (MDD) frameworks have three critical issues: (1) abstraction gap between modeling and programming layers, (2) a... Sample PDF
Matilda: A Generic and Tailorable Framework for Direct Model Execution in Model-Driven Software Development
Chapter 18
Ismail Omar Hababeh, Muthu Ramachandran
The efficiency and effectiveness of Quality of Service QoS performance methods in a Distributed Database Management System DDBMS environment are... Sample PDF
A Software Tool and a Network Simulation for Improving Quality of Service Performance in Distributed Database Management Systems
Chapter 19
Jean-Louis Boulanger, Alban Rasse, Akram Idani
This chapter presents an approach for certified design of railway critical systems. This approach, which realizes the software development cycle... Sample PDF
Models Oriented Approach for Developing Railway Safety-Critical Systems with UML
Chapter 20
Sathya Ganeshan, Muthu Ramachandran
The success of initiating a software product line based approach on an organization depends on a few critical factors. Among them is a thoroughly... Sample PDF
Commonality Analysis: Implications over a Successful Product Line
Chapter 21
Sathya Ganeshan, Muthu Ramachandran
The aim of this chapter is to introduce a reader to the world of software product lines, how it is used and what the future of this field might be.... Sample PDF
Rapid Productivity and Quality: Software Product Lines and Trends of the Future
Chapter 22
Software Components  (pages 351-363)
Adnan Bader, Sita Ramakrishnan
Component-based software engineering (CBSE) has rapidly gained currency over recent years. Software developed as components and as assemblies of... Sample PDF
Software Components
Chapter 23
Salem Al-Marri, Muthu Ramachandran
Natural disasters are increasingly frequent in recent years taking peoples’ lives and destructions to our economy, for example, Hurricane Katrina... Sample PDF
The Role of Information Technology Managers in the Significant Company in Case of Natural Disasters in Qatar
Chapter 24
Rogério Atem de Carvalho, Björn Johansson
After the implementation peak of ERPs that occurred during the pre- and post-Y2K periods, the high-end ERP market started to saturate and major ERP... Sample PDF
Enterprise Resource Planning Systems for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
Chapter 25
S. Parthasarathy
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) covers the techniques and concepts employed for the integrated management of businesses as a whole, from the... Sample PDF
Directed Basic Research in Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
Chapter 26
Ismail Omar Hababeh, Muthu Ramachandran
Database technology has been a significant field to work in for developing real life applications in network information systems. An enterprise’s... Sample PDF
Trends in Improving Performances in Distributed Database Management Systems
Chapter 27
Rogério Atem de Carvalho, Renato de Campos, Rafael Manhães Monnerat
The design and implementation of an ERP system involves capturing the information necessary for implementing a system that supports enterprise... Sample PDF
ERP System Implementation from the Ground Up: The ERP5 Development Process and Tools
Chapter 28
R. B. Lenin, S. Ramaswamy, Liguo Yu, R. B. Govindan
Complex software systems and the huge amounts of data they produce are becoming an integral part of our organizations. We are also becoming... Sample PDF
Open Source Software Systems: Understanding Bug Prediction and Software Developer Roles
Chapter 29
Salem Al-Marri, Muthu Ramachandran
Emergency needs occurs anywhere anytime by naturally, manually and accidentally in addition to worldwide death by hunger and poverty. As such, the... Sample PDF
Information System Model for Global Emergency-Response System in the Context of Natural Disaster Recovery Management System
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