Instructional design (ID) is the systematic process of planning events to facilitate learning. The ID process encompasses a set of interdependent phases including analysis of learners, contexts and goals; design of objectives, strategies and assessment tools; production of instructional materials; and evaluation of learner performance and overall instructional design effort. The system approach, developed in the 1950s and 1960s, is rooted in the military and business world and has dominated educational technology and educational development since the 1970s. Currently, there are more than one hundred different ISD models, with almost all based on the generic ADDIE model. Other commonly known models include the Dick and Carey Model, the R2D2 Model, the ICARE Model, and the ASSURE Model. These models share three major components: analysis, strategy development, and evaluation. This chapter identifies the different roles and responsibilities involved when developing a typical title and outlines the main steps in the development.
Key Terms in this Chapter
Rapid Prototyping: The use of rapid prototyping methodologies is to reduce the production time by using working models of the final product early in a project tends to eliminate time-consuming revisions later on, and by completing design tasks concurrently, rather than sequentially throughout the project. The steps are crunched together to reduce the amount of time needed to develop training or a product. The design and development phases are done simultaneously and the formative evaluation is done throughout the process.
Project Management: Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to a broad range of activities in order to meet the requirements of the particular project. A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to achieve a particular aim. Project management knowledge and practices are best described in terms of their component processes. These processes can be placed into five process groups: initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing—and nine knowledge areas—project integration management, project scope management, project time management, project cost management, project quality management, project human resource management, project communications management, project risk management, and project procurement management
Task Analysis: Used to determine if it is a training/incentive/organizational problem. That is, identify who has the performance problem (management/workers, faculty/learners), the cause of the problem, and appropriate solutions.
Instructional Technology: The use of technology (computers, compact disc, interactive media, software, hardware, video, audio, peripherals, teleconferencing, etc.) to support learning.
Performance/Learner Analysis: Used to identify learner/trainee/employee characteristics and individual differences that may impact on learning/performance such as prior knowledge, personality variables, aptitude variables, and cognitive styles.
Storyboard: (see figure in Appendix) The process of sketching the content on planning worksheets or with development software. As was true of the flowchart for computer programmers, the storyboard does not have to be a work of art. Graphics can be hand drawn. The idea of storyboarding is to give the production team enough information so each member can take the storyboards and begin to develop his/her portion of the final product. The client and/or the subject matter expert will work closely with the development staff in creating the storyboard.
Instructional Design: Instructional design, also known as instructional systems design, is the analysis of learning needs and systematic development of instruction. Instructional designers often use Instructional technology as a method for developing instruction. Instructional design models typically specify a method, that if followed will facilitate the transfer of knowledge, skills, and attitude to the recipient or acquirer of the instruction.
Needs Assessment: Used to determine if an instructional need exists by conducting a needs assessment using some combination of the following methods and techniques.