Effective teaching begins with effective planning of instruction. Planned instruction with technology integrated appeals to students and accommodates students’ needs. Students expect technology to be utilized to support the learning process because of their acquaintance with a variety of technologies at a very early age. Educators must be aware of the needs and expectations of students and then design courses that integrate technology based on these identified needs and expectations. A critical element required to integrate technology into the learning environment successfully is the instructional design process. The instructional design process provides a framework for systematically planning, developing, and adapting instruction based on learner needs and content requirements. With the instructional design process, educators evaluate student needs, plan the lesson objectives, design the instructional content, and create assessments. Evaluation and revision of each of the instructional components is continually modified to meet the changing needs of the learners and the advancement of technology.
Key Terms in this Chapter
Instruction Design Models: Systematic guidelines instructional designers follow in order to facilitate the transfer of knowledge, skills, and attitude to the recipient. The ID models typically specify a method that will create well-planned, logical, attainable, and sequential instruction. ID models are visualized representations of an instructional design process. (Example of ID models include: Dick & Carey Model, ADDIE Model, Kemp Model, ICARE Model, and ASSURE Model.)
Implementation Phase: Create an implementation timeline, establish procedures for training the facilitators or the learners, and make revisions as needed (after the evaluation phase) to prepare the final product.
ADDIE Model: A foundational instructional design process that represents five basic components of planning and designing instruction: analysis, design, developments, implementation and evaluation. This instructional design model enables standardized development of learning solutions as the educator and the instructional designer moves through the five phases of development.
Instructional Design Theory: Guides the practice of the instructional designer and offers explicit guidance on how to better help learners to achieve the instructional goals established for the lesson or instructional activity.
Evaluation phase: A systemic process that determines the quality and effectiveness of the designed instruction as well as the final product. Evaluation is an ongoing process—it occurs throughout the ID process.
Instructional Designer: An individual who applies a systemic methodology based on instructional theory to design and develop content and curriculum, learning support resources, and delivery and assessment methodologies.
Design phase: The designer continues with the subject matter analysis and then moves into the application of instructional strategies according to the content type, the user interface is designed and needed materials are collected.
Instructional Systems Design: The analysis of learning needs and systematic development of instruction. ISD is the process and the framework for systematically planning, developing and adapting instruction based on identifiable learner needs and content requirements.
Analysis phase: Determining the needs for instruction, analyzing the learner’s needs, and establishing goals of the instruction to begin the design phase.
Instructional Technology: Defined as the theory and practice of the design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of the processes and resources for learning.
Development phase: Production begins with a continued review of the current course content, creating new content, organizing content, selecting delivery methods and technology requirements