Instructional Technology Plans for Higher Education Institutions

Instructional Technology Plans for Higher Education Institutions

Hasan Tinmaz (Educational Technologist, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-400-2.ch027
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Technology planning is an indispensable activity for all higher education institutions nowadays. The major purpose of the technology planning is to utilize technologies effectively and implement them for communicative, managerial and instructional purposes. This chapter offers a dynamic and adaptable framework for technology planning project in higher education institutions. Basically, the framework compares the mission and vision in terms of three dimensions; Peopleware, Hardware and Software. Peopleware focuses on all people within faculty organizations such as students, academicians and administrators and analyze their current situation in terms of four different interrelated points (technology knowledge, value, belief and attitude) to depict their levels (naïve, apprentice, professional and experienced). In the hardware analysis, the author analyzes personal computers, networking tools, other peripherals (printers, scanners, and etc…) and the building. For software analysis, starting with the operating system, entire software required for instructional and professional purposes are documented. In the last step, project team analyzes the data holistically and creates yearly developmental activities in terms of applicable recommendations.
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In parallel to innovations in the world, our societies are continuously developing and evolving. As a result, both governmental and industrial organizations begin to work out the restructuring ways for increasing their effectiveness and productivity. For the adaptation of societies into modern era and for their preparations for the innovations, “education” is the reality and the necessity for us. As the technology has emerged in the field of education and reflected its effects on educational systems (Westera, 2004), technologies are perceived as a panacea for all instructional problems. Moreover, as Whelan (2004) pointed “today’s teens view technology not only as a part of life, but as a way of life” (p. 48).

After a certain time, scientific research studies have shown that there is no significant difference between technologically furnished environments and their counter parts. For instance, well-known educational technologist; Clark (1983) frequently emphasizes that there is no evidence showing that utilization of any medium for delivering instruction yields better learning benefits. On the other hand, the same studies demonstrated that there are certain benefits in terms of instructional and managerial time efficiency, enrichment of instructional contexts in terms of materials, easy student record-keeping activities. Similarly, Clark argues that media utilization offers some opportunities for performance and time savings. In that sense, the scholars from different disciplines have started scrutinizing the underlying reasons in subsequent to those non-significant study results.

The most significant result of these scientific attempts is that we must focus on how technological processes and tools are integrated into teaching-learning environments rather than how much technology is utilized in those environments. Therefore, the history of technology in education might be summarized in one sentence; just bringing the technology, no matter how much it is qualified, into instructional settings and allowing it to be used by the teachers or students mean nothing in terms of learning efficiency. Stakeholders of educational activities must spend more time and energy on technology-enriched contexts so that the return-on-investment will be maximized (Huber, 2005). Otherwise, technology implementation will not be provided in a broad sense.

Instructional Technology is a set of systematic and planned activities to arrange learning and teaching environments for that maximization purpose. In 1994, Seels and Richey defined the field of Instructional Technology “… as theory and application of design, development, utilization, management and evaluation of processes and resources for learning and teaching” (p.1). Such a definition of Instructional Technology comprises each and every individual before, during, and after the related processes and all the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in both micro and macro levels. Each country spends a great amount of money for technological investments. Out of that budget, a huge percentage is dedicated to educational use of technologies in schools, universities or any other institutions.

Improving the efficiency and the generalization of information and communication technologies’ usage in education are the ultimate aims of each national development plan. In all levels of education, instructors are encouraged to utilize audio-visual tools in their teaching activities; such as, computers, televisions, videos, overhead projectors, and etc. As Roblyer (2003) identified, the crucial duty of our modern teachers is to establish and to put the effective technology integration plans into practice. Hence, schools and universities are provided with the Internet connections and information technology classrooms for computer-aided-instruction. For instance, according to Eurydice (2008) which is an information network on education in Europe, for the years 2006-2007, Turkey has provided 294.000 computers for its schools, information technology classes for 19.000 schools and ADSL type Internet connection for 25.000 schools. However, in year 2005, 48 students shared one computer in schools where this ratio is decreasing each fiscal year.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Software: Is a general term for the computer programs utilized in any personal computers, in courses, in entire faculty, or in networking infrastructure.

Vision: An imagination of any organization’s prospective situation. Vision is the depiction or prediction of futuristic context in terms of possible successes and aims to be reached.

Technology Attitude: Is the internal perceptive representation of technology in individual’s mind.

Hardware: Is a general term for tangible computer apparatus functionalized for using computer programs or controlling the networking.

Mission: The commitment of any organization to its responsibilities, purposes, predefined works for achieving short or long terms objectives. Mission frames the current activities of the organization in terms of ideal depictions.

Technology Belief: Is the acceptance or reliance on technology and its usefulness on different settings and processes.

Technology Planning: Or ‘instructional technology planning’, is a technique for assessing the current and prospective situations of any organization’s technological infrastructure in relation to communicative, instructional and managerial activities.

Peopleware: Is a general term for implying all stakeholders who will be affected from the results of the technology planning activities.

Stakeholder: Is a group or group of people who might be affected by the activities of any organizational structure.

Technology KSA (Knowledge, Skill and Ability): Are the necessary and required competencies for using technologies.

Technology Value: Is the assessment of worth in terms technology and its effects on ethics, society, education and etc…

Complete Chapter List

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Robert K. Hiltbrand
Terry T. Kidd
Terry T. Kidd
Chapter 1
James W. Price Jr., Pamila Dembla
As exploratory research, the chapter’s aim is to assess if Sun-Tzu’s application of Taoist principles are applicable to the problem domain of... Sample PDF
The Tao To Understanding Enterprise It Project Complexity: Sun-Tzu's Five Factors Revisited
Chapter 2
A. J. Gilbert Silvius
This chapter describes a study into the expected development of the competences of the project manager in the year 2027. The study was performed... Sample PDF
Project Management 2027: The Future of Project Management
Chapter 3
Gregory J. Skulmoski, Francis T. Hartman
The purpose of this research was to investigate the soft competencies by project phase that IT project managers, hybrid and technical team members... Sample PDF
The Progression Towards Project Management Competence
Chapter 4
Ralf Müller
This chapter addresses project managers’ leadership styles, mainly from the perspective of technology projects. It starts by defining and outlining... Sample PDF
Leadership in Technology Project Management
Chapter 5
Melanie S. Karas, Mahesh S. Raisinghani, Kerry S. Webb
A project manager’s role on any project goes far beyond task-related deliverables. Although the project manager must be able to effectively manage... Sample PDF
The Importance of Leadership in Project Management
Chapter 6
Jaby Mohammed
This chapter introduces the concept of technology management by objectives. Technology is one of the fastest moving elements in the 21st Century... Sample PDF
Technology Management by Objectives (TMO)
Chapter 7
Gary Pan
The goal of any product is to be used. In a very real sense, people judge the success or failure of any product by the extent to which it is used by... Sample PDF
Examining Stakeholders' Roles in Influencing IT Project Cancellation Decisions
Chapter 8
Daniel W. Surry
This chapter will discuss more than 20 system development life cycles (SDLC) found in the Information Technology project management arena, whereby... Sample PDF
Bringing the User into the Project Development Process
Chapter 9
Evon M. O. Abu-Taieh, Asim A. El Sheikh, Jeihan M. Abu-Tayeh, Maha T. El-Mahied
This chapter uses the Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) theory and examines a business case, highlighting certain gaps in the theory. First, confusion... Sample PDF
Information Technology Projects System Development Life Cycles: Comparative Study
Chapter 10
Francisco Chia Cua, Tony C. Garrett
This chapter introduces the Firm-Level Value Creation Model as a means of planning Information Systems projects based on their potential for... Sample PDF
Analyzing Diffusion and Value Creation Dimensions of a Business Case of Replacing Enterprise Systems
Chapter 11
Otavio Prospero Sanchez, Alberto Luiz Albertin
In this chapter the authors investigate the management of service innovation projects; can ICT based service innovation be facilitated by... Sample PDF
IT Project Planning based on Business Value Generation
Chapter 12
Bendik Bygstad, Gjermund Lanestedt
This chapter provides a framework for technology project implementation in systems where the human is an integral element of the completed project.... Sample PDF
Managing ICT Based Service Innovation
Chapter 13
Katy E. Ellis
Project management is a carefully planned, organized effort to manage the resources in order to successfully accomplish specific project goals and... Sample PDF
Employee Preparation, Participation, and Performance
Chapter 14
Jaby Mohammed, Ali Alavizadeh
This chapter provides a fundamental yet comprehensive coverage of quality management. Bringing managers and engineers the most up-to-date quality... Sample PDF
Quality Assurance in Project Management
Chapter 15
Sohail Anwar
Project management is a carefully planned, organized effort to manage the resources in order to successfully accomplish specific project goals and... Sample PDF
Quality Management and Control
Chapter 16
Dawn M. Owens, Deepak Khazanchi
Successful implementation of IT (information technology) projects is a critical strategic and competitive necessity for firms in all industrial... Sample PDF
Software Quality Assurance
Chapter 17
Fayez Ahmad Albadri
An overwhelming number of Information Technology (IT) projects experience persistent problems and failures. This chapter reflects on some of the... Sample PDF
IPRM: The Integrated Project Risk Model
Chapter 18
Technical Risk Management  (pages 283-294)
Pete Hylton
In today’s highly competitive industrial environment, many high-tech businesses are using Technical Risk Management (TRM) in their engineering... Sample PDF
Technical Risk Management
Chapter 19
Lauren Fancher
IT projects across all sectors are relying on more iterative methodologies that can employ early and frequent assessment and evaluation processes in... Sample PDF
Early, Often, and Repeat: Assessment and Evaluation Methodology for Ensuring Stakeholder Satisfaction with Information Technology Projects
Chapter 20
Chad J. Cray
Considering the high failure rate of information technology (IT) projects over the last 40 years, project managers should use all the tools at their... Sample PDF
A Needle in a Haystack: Choosing the Right Development Methodology for IT Projects
Chapter 21
Mysore Narayanan
In this chapter, the author describes how one can implement and incorporate creative techniques to design, develop, document and disseminate a... Sample PDF
Project Management Assessment Methods
Chapter 22
Mario Vanhoucke
It is well-known that well managed and controlled projects are more likely to be delivered on time and within budget. The construction of a... Sample PDF
Static and Dynamic Determinants of Earned Value Based Time Forecast Accuracy
Chapter 23
Michele De Lorenzi
This chapter presents a technology exploration process designed to support service innovation for information and communication technologies in a... Sample PDF
Technology Exploration Process: From Technology to New Services
Chapter 24
Henryk R. Marcinkiewicz
Three models structure the planning for technology integration into instruction. Institutional needs are assessed for three dimensions suggested in... Sample PDF
Planning for Integrating Technology
Chapter 25
Michael Crow
Kansas State University has ensured greatly increased academic involvement in the implementation of its new student information system through the... Sample PDF
University Task Force Deepens Academic Involvement in ERP System
Chapter 26
Joni A. Amorim, Carlos Machado, Rosana G.S. Miskulin, Mauro S. Miskulin
The production of quality educational multimedia content involves both its publication and its use, considering aspects ranging from metadata... Sample PDF
Production, Publication, and Use of Educational Multimedia Content in Brazil: Challenges and Opportunities in Real World Technology Projects
Chapter 27
Hasan Tinmaz
Technology planning is an indispensable activity for all higher education institutions nowadays. The major purpose of the technology planning is to... Sample PDF
Instructional Technology Plans for Higher Education Institutions
Chapter 28
Patricia McGee, Veronica Diaz
The rapid proliferation of e-learning tools that offer low or no cost investment and are not housed on institutional servers, has made it very... Sample PDF
Shifting from Classroom to Online Delivery
Chapter 29
Bimal P. Nepal, Leslie Monplaisir
Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in automotive industry are faced with the conflicting goals of creating vehicles with higher reliability... Sample PDF
Lean and Global Product Development in Auto Industry
Chapter 30
Debra D. Orosbullard
The business world is running at a faster pace than ever before. Globalization has partnered the world and new ways of doing business to meet... Sample PDF
Future Trends: Global Projects & Virtual Teaming
Chapter 31
Geoffrey Corb, Stephen Hellen
Social networking technologies—such as Wikis, blogs and instant messaging—are increasingly being employed in business settings to support... Sample PDF
Wiki-enabled Technology Management
Chapter 32
Owen G. McGrath
Higher education IT project managers have always relied on user activity data as logged in one form or another. Summarized counts of users and... Sample PDF
Mining User Activity Data In Higher Education Open Systems: Trends, Challenges, and Possibilities
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