This chapter provides a case study of a failed enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementation at a public university. Public universities, like other governmental agencies, may have more dif?culty implementing information technology (IT) because of limited resources, increased organizational bureaucracy, and extensive statutory reporting requirements. This chapter begins by identifying what an ERP system is, the dif?culties of implementing ERP systems, and the added dif?culties related to implementing technology in governmental organizations. In this case study analysis, upper managers, IT staff, and functional department end users were asked to identify why the project failed. Several lessons were learned including the importance of allocating adequate ?nancial resources to IT projects and managing the change process. As organizations move from the centralized legacy system environment which was prevalent in the last half of the 20th century, to the new distributed ERP environment, roles and responsibilities are changing. Readers are provided with practical suggestions that will help improve IT implementation success in governmental agencies.