Integrated Requirement and Solution Modeling: An Approach Based on Enterprise Models

Integrated Requirement and Solution Modeling: An Approach Based on Enterprise Models

Anders Carstensen (Jönköping University, Sweden), Lennart Holmberg (Kongsberg Automotive, Sweden), Kurt Sandkuhl (Jönköping University, Sweden) and Janis Stirna (Jönköping University, Sweden)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-278-7.ch005
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Abstract

This chapter discusses how an Enterprise Modeling approach, namely C3S3P1, has been applied in an automotive supplier company. The chapter concentrates on the phases of the C3S3P development process such as Concept Study, Scaffolding, Scoping, and Requirements Modeling. The authors have also presented the concept of task pattern which has been used for capturing, documenting and sharing best practices concerning business processes in an organization. Within this application context they have analyzed their experiences concerning stakeholder participation and task pattern development. The authors have also described how they have derived four different categories of requirements from scenario descriptions for the task patterns and from modeling of the task patterns.
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Introduction

Every information system (IS) engineering project needs to have a clear vision and purpose, and to know what kind of properties the developed product should possess. This usually is the focus of requirements engineering (RE) activities that are being performed in early stages of an IS development project. The main objective of this process is not only to put forward a number of features that the product should have, but also to connect them to the business needs of the customer organization in such a way that each product requirement is traceable to some business objective of the organization. This explicit connection between IS requirements and business goals helps avoiding unnecessary rework and increases the business value of the product. Moreover, in the process of eliciting and linking the business needs and IS requirements, the development team and the stakeholders usually have to tackle a number of “wicked” or “ill-structured” problems (Rittel & Webber, 1984) typically occurring in organizations.

Enterprise Modeling (EM) seeks to solve organizational design problems in, for instance, business process reengineering, strategy planning, enterprise integration, and information systems development (Bubenko & Kirikova, 1999). The EM process typically leads to an integrated and negotiated model describing different aspects (e.g. business goals, concepts, processes) of an enterprise. A number of EM approaches (c.f., for instance (Bubenko, Persson, & Stirna, 2001; Castro, Kolp, & Mylopoulos, 2001; F3-Consortium, 1994; Loucopoulos et al., 1997; van Lamsweerde, 2001; Yu & Mylopoulos, 1994)) have been suggested. To document the models and to support the EM processes computerized tools are used. They differ in complexity from simple, yet cost-effective, drawing tools such as Microsoft Visio and iGrafx FlowCharter to more advanced tools such as Aris (IDS Scheer) and METIS (Troux Technologies).

The participative approach to EM contributes to the quality of the requirement specification as well as increases the acceptance of decisions in the organizations, and is thus recommended by several EM approaches (c.f. for instance (Bubenko & Kirikova, 1999; Persson & Stirna, 2001; Stirna, Persson, & Sandkuhl, 2007)). The participative approach suggests that the modeling group consists of stakeholders and domain experts who build enterprise models following guidance given by a modeling facilitator. An alternative expert driven approach suggests interviews and questionnaires for fact gathering and then creation of an enterprise model in an analytical way.

EM and especially the participative way of working is highly useful in situations when the development team needs to capture and consolidate the user needs and then to propose an innovative solution to them. In such situations one of the main challenges is to establish traceability between the user needs, such as, for instance, goals, processes, and requirements, and the designed solutions to these needs in terms of tasks, methods, and tools. Furthermore, in such situation the user needs can be met in many different ways, which requires early stakeholder validation of the envisioned solution. A common example of such an application context is an innovative research and development (R&D) project aiming to develop new methods and tools. In this chapter we present an EU supported R&D project MAPPER (Model-based Adaptive Product and Process Engineering) that has successfully overcome these challenges. More specifically, the objective of this chapter is to report how a specific EM approach, namely C3S3P2, was applied in an automotive supplier company in order to elicit requirements for a reconfigurable IS to support collaborative engineering and flexible manufacturing processes. More specifically, we will address the following questions:

  • How were the stages of C3S3P followed to develop requirements and what where the experiences and lessons learned in each of them?

  • What kinds of model elements were used in the project and how were they supported by the METIS3 tool?

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Terry Halpin
When modeling information systems, one often encounters subtyping aspects of the business domain that can prove challenging to implement in either... Sample PDF
Enriched Conceptualization of Subtyping
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Chapter 2
Alessandro Artale, C. Maria Keet
This chapter focuses on formally representing life cycle semantics of part-whole relations in conceptual data models by utilizing the temporal... Sample PDF
Essential, Mandatory, and Shared Parts in Conceptual Data Models
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Chapter 3
Peter Bollen
In this chapter the authors extend the ORM conceptual modeling language with constructs for capturing the relevant parts of an application ontology... Sample PDF
Extending the ORM Conceptual Schema Language and Design Procedure with Modeling Constructs for Capturing the Domain Ontology
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Chapter 4
Janis Stirna, Anne Persson
This chapter presents experiences and reflections from using the EKD Enterprise Modeling method in a number of European organizations. The EKD... Sample PDF
EKD: An Enterprise Modeling Approach to Support Creativity and Quality in Information Systems and Business Development
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Chapter 5
Anders Carstensen, Lennart Holmberg, Kurt Sandkuhl, Janis Stirna
This chapter discusses how an Enterprise Modeling approach, namely C3S3P1, has been applied in an automotive supplier company. The chapter... Sample PDF
Integrated Requirement and Solution Modeling: An Approach Based on Enterprise Models
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Chapter 6
John Krogstie, Frank Lillehagen
Innovative design is the most important competitive factor for global engineering and manufacturing. Critical challenges include cutting lead times... Sample PDF
Methodologies for Active Knowledge Modeling
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Chapter 7
Peretz Shoval, Mark Last, Avihai Yampolsky
In the analysis phase of the information system development, the user requirements are studied, and analysis models are created. In most UML-based... Sample PDF
Data Modeling and Functional Modeling: Examining the Preferred Order of Using UML Class Diagrams and Use Cases
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Chapter 8
Mauri Leppänen
A large number of strategies, approaches, meta models, techniques and procedures have been suggested to support method engineering (ME). Most of... Sample PDF
OntoFrame: An Ontological Framework for Method Engineering
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Chapter 9
Patrick van Bommel, Stijn Hoppenbrouwers, Erik Proper, Jeroen Roelofs
A process-oriented framework (QoMo) is presented that aims to further the study of analysis and support of processes for modeling. The framework is... Sample PDF
Concepts and Strategies for Quality of Modeling
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Chapter 10
John Erickson, Keng Siau
This chapter presents the basic ideas underlying Service Oriented Architecture as well as a brief overview of current research into the phenomena... Sample PDF
Service Oriented Architecture: A Research Review from the Software and Applications Perspective
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Chapter 11
Vítor Estêvão Silva Souza, Ricardo de Almeida Falbo, Giancarlo Guizzardi
In the Web Engineering area, many methods and frameworks to support Web Information Systems (WISs) development have already been proposed.... Sample PDF
Designing Web Information Systems for a Framework-Based Construction
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Chapter 12
Tony Elliman, Tally Hatzakis, Alan Serrano
This paper discusses the idea that even though information systems development (ISD) approaches have long advocated the use of integrated... Sample PDF
Business Process Simulation: An Alternative Modelling Technique for the Information System Development Process
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Chapter 13
Leandro Dias da Silva, Elthon Allex da Silva Oliveira, Hyggo Almeida, Angelo Perkusich
In this chapter a formal agent based approach for the modeling and verification of intelligent information systems using Coloured Petri Nets is... Sample PDF
An Agent Based Formal Approach for Modeling and Verifying Integrated Intelligent Information Systems
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Chapter 14
Jan vom Brocke
With the design of reference models, an increase in the efficiency of information systems engineering is intended. This is expected to be achieved... Sample PDF
Design Principles for Reference Modelling: Reusing Information Models by Means of Aggregation, Specialisation, Instantiation and Analogy
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Chapter 15
Eleni Berki
Information systems development methodologies and associated CASE tools have been considered as cornerstones for building quality in an information... Sample PDF
Examining the Quality of Evaluation Frameworks and Metamodeling Paradigms of Information Systems Development Methodologies
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