Integrating ICT into Sustainable Local Policies

Integrating ICT into Sustainable Local Policies

Antonio Caperna (Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Italy)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61520-929-3.ch018
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This chapter analyses the Information and Communication Technologies (hereafter referred to as ICT) phenomenon, the opportunities it offers, the potential problems, and the relationship with local policies. It moves on the actions needed to develop, within the Agenda 21 process, a framework able to define some fundamental features for a new spatial theory in the information age, which will eventually consider Information and Communication Technology not just a simple tool, but a crucial aspect of a sustainable policy, capable, if well addressed, to mitigate various current or emerging territorial challenges such as literacy and education, public participation in the planning process, social and geographical divide, institutional transparency, etc.. This chapter will illustrate a framework able to assist politicians and planners in planning a sustainable development through ICT.
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As claimed by several authors, we live in the information age (Masuda, 1981; Castells, 1996, 2002). An era where knowledge and information have become key factors in the growth of contemporary society triggering socio-political and economical as well as cultural and spatial changes (e.g. the emergence of the space of flows, Castells, 1996).

On one side, new political and environmental challenges inspired by the acceptance of the sustainable development principles have induced governments and public authorities to open up access to environmental information as a means to improve public participation in environmental decision making and awareness. On the other side the growth of ICT is a tool that not only constitutes an industry in its own right but which also pervades all sectors of economy, where it acts as integrating and enabling technologies. ICT have a profound impact on society, and their production and use have important effects on the development of economic, social and environmental areas, promoting new questions discussed by theorists and planners. But the extent of ICT in everyday life and its strong relationship with socio-cultural and economic aspects produce a complex equation which is difficult to understand and solve.

This paper aims to explain some fundamental aspects about ICT, and to offer a framework that will allow: planning a sustainable policy; addressing ICT in a sustainable way; developing an analytical process of understanding environmental information use, and supporting public access, improving awareness and participation processes. This assumption is based on the current trend within public authorities to use ICT as a major delivery medium.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Sustainable Development (SD): According to the WCED, SD is “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” The essence of this form of development is a stable relationship between human activities and the natural world, which does not diminish the prospects for future generations to enjoy a quality of life at least as good as our own.

Local Policy: A comprehensive view about a territory able to address the strategic choices of a community.

Local Authority/ Local Government: The lowest tier of elected government.

Framework: An instrument providing a general spatial framework for a town or a territory Information and Communications Technology (ICT). We can refer the relationship, through digital technology, between information and communication and how we can storage, analyze, and to spread information. It includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning. About the ICT sectors, in 1998, OECD member countries agreed to define the ICT sector as a combination of manufacturing and services industries that capture, transmit and display data and information electronically.

Local Plan: A plan that sets out detailed policies and specific proposals for the development and use of land in a district and guides most day-to-day planning decisions.

Infrastructure: Basic services necessary for development to take place (roads, electricity, water, education, health facilities, communications, etc.).

Land Use: The way land is used or developed.

Spatial Development: Changes in the distribution of activities in space and the linkages between them through the conversion of land and property.

Stakeholder: An institution, organization, or group that has some interest in a particular sector.

Strategic Planning: Preparation of a strategy identifying the broad patterns of growth; it is generally long-term and comprehensive, bringing together social, economic and spatial considerations.

Complete Chapter List

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Editorial Advisory Board & List of Reviewers
Table of Contents
Carlos Nunes Silva
Carlos Nunes Silva
Chapter 1
Carlos Nunes Silva
The chapter discusses the relationships between planning theory and the use of information and communication technologies in urban planning. It... Sample PDF
The E-Planning Paradigm – Theory, Methods and Tools: An Overview
Chapter 2
Tan Yigitcanlar
The first use of computing technologies and the development of land use models in order to support decision-making processes in urban planning date... Sample PDF
Planning Online: A Community-Based Interactive Decision-Making Model
Chapter 3
Yun Chen, Andy Hamilton, Alan Borning
In this chapter the authors present two methodologies: Modelling & Matching methodology (M&M) and Value Sensitive Design (VSD), which can help... Sample PDF
Modelling & Matching and Value Sensitive Design: Two Methodologies for E-Planning Systems Development
Chapter 4
Liisa Horelli, Sirkku Wallin
As e-planning takes place in a complex and dynamic context, consisting of many stakeholders with a diversity of interests, it benefits from an... Sample PDF
The Future-Making Assessment Approach as a Tool for E-Planning and Community Development: The Case of Ubiquitous Helsinki
Chapter 5
Aija Staffans, Heli Rantanen, Pilvi Nummi
The Internet is shaking up the expertise and production of knowledge in the planning institution. Digital citizens are searching for information... Sample PDF
Local Internet Forums: Interactive Land Use Planning and Urban Development in Neighbourhoods
Chapter 6
Arne Arnberger, Thomas Reichhart
During the past decades, computer visualizations have been frequently used in urban e-Planning and research. The question arises of whether the... Sample PDF
Does Computer Game Experience Influence Visual Scenario Assessment of Urban Recreational Paths?: A Case Study Using 3-D Computer Animation
Chapter 7
Markus Jobst, Jürgen Döllner, Olaf Lubanski
Planning situations are commonly managed by intensive discussions between all stakeholders. Virtual 3D city models enhance these communication... Sample PDF
Communicating Geoinformation Effectively With Virtual 3d City Models
Chapter 8
Kheir Al-Kodmany
Spatial information is a crucial cornerstone of e-planning. This paper explains the process of constructing a mega geospatial database for the Hajj... Sample PDF
Political Power, Governance, and E-Planning
Chapter 9
Herbert Kubicek
Because urban planning affects the living conditions of its inhabitants, most countries, at least western democracies, require some kind of citizen... Sample PDF
The Potential of E-Participation in Urban Planning: A European Perspective
Chapter 10
Domenico Camarda
The new complexity of planning knowledge implies innovation of planning methods, in both substance and procedure. The development of multi-agent... Sample PDF
Beyond Citizen Participation in Planning: Multi-Agent Systems for Complex Decision-Making
Chapter 11
Maria Manta Conroy, Jennifer Evans-Cowley
Municipalities that plan have both a legal obligation and a professional directive to incorporate citizens into the planning process, but garnering... Sample PDF
The E-Citizen in Planning: U.S. Municipalities’ Views of Who Participates Online
Chapter 12
Mikael Granberg, Joachim Åström
The chapter questions what planners really mean when they display positive attitudes toward increased citizen participation via ICTs? Are they... Sample PDF
Planners Support of E-Participation in the Field of Urban Planning
Chapter 13
Jens Klessmann
In this article it will be shown how different general types of portals can be utilized to foster public participation processes in urban and... Sample PDF
Portals as a Tool for Public Participation in Urban Planning
Chapter 14
Vassilis Bourdakis, Alex Deffner
One of the recent main problems in urban planning is to find ways in order to employ practical, very broad and commonly used theoretical principles... Sample PDF
Can Urban Planning, Participation and ICT Co-Exist?: Developing a Curriculum and an Interactive Virtual Reality Tool for Agia Varvara, Athens, Greece
Chapter 15
Bridgette Wessels
This chapter discusses the way in which understanding of participation in e-services has evolved through a social learning process within planning... Sample PDF
The Role of Local Agencies in Developing Community Participation in E-Government and E-Public Services
Chapter 16
Alexandre Repetti, Jean-Claude Bolay
Developing cities are experiencing substantial gaps in urban planning. They are due to approaches and instruments that do not correspond to the... Sample PDF
ICTs and Participation in Developing Cities
Chapter 17
Scott Baum, Arun Mahizhnan
Singapore’s E-government model is considered to be among the best in the world. Over the past decade the Singapore government has constantly... Sample PDF
Public Participation in E-Government: Some Questions about Social Inclusion in the Singapore Model
Chapter 18
Antonio Caperna
This chapter analyses the Information and Communication Technologies (hereafter referred to as ICT) phenomenon, the opportunities it offers, the... Sample PDF
Integrating ICT into Sustainable Local Policies
Chapter 19
Darren J. Reed, Andrew Webster
This chapter engages with contemporary approaches to urban planning by introducing an analytic strategy rooted in the sociological approach of... Sample PDF
Architectures of Motility: ICT Systems, Transport and Planning for Complex Urban Spaces
Chapter 20
RFID in Urban Planning  (pages 388-403)
Les Pang, Vanessa Morgan-Morris, Angela Howell
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a significant emerging technology that enables the automation of numerous applications globally.... Sample PDF
RFID in Urban Planning
Chapter 21
Stephen Kwamena Aikins
This chapter discusses the security risks and management implications for the use of information technology to manage urban and regional planning... Sample PDF
E-Planning: Information Security Risks and Management Implications
Chapter 22
Koray Velibeyoglu
This chapter examines the pivotal relationship between e-planning applications and their organizational context. It employs various evaluation... Sample PDF
E-Planning Applications in Turkish Local Governments
Chapter 23
Muhammad Faris Abdullah, Alias Abdullah, Rustam Khairi Zahari
The chapter presents the current state of GIS implementation in Malaysian development plan system. It offers an overview of GIS implementation... Sample PDF
GIS Implementation in Malaysian Statutory Development Plan System
About the Contributors