Developments in office automation, which provided multiple end-user authoring applications at the computer desktop, heralded a rapid growth in the production of digital documents and introduced the requirement to manage capture and organization of digital documents, including images. The process of capturing digital documents in managed repositories included metadata to support access and retrieval subsequent to document production (D’Alleyrand, 1989; Ricks, Swafford & Gow, 1992). The imperatives of documentary support for workflow in enterprises, along with widespread adoption of Web-oriented software on intranets and the Internet World Wide Web (WWW), has given rise to systems that manage the creation, access, routing, and storage of documents, in a more seamless manner for Web presentation. These content management systems are progressively employing document management features such as metadata creation, version control, and renditions (Megill & Schantz, 1999; Wiggins, 2000), along with features for management of content production such as authoring and authorization for internal distribution and publishing (Addey et al., 2002; Boiko, 2002; Hackos, 2002; Nakano, 2002). If business applications are designed taking into account document and Web content management as integral constructs of enterprise information architecture, then the context of these solutions may be an integrative document and content management (IDCM) model (Asprey & Middleton, 2003). As the name implies, the IDCM model aspires to combine the features of a document management system with the functionality of Web content management. An integrative business and technology framework manages designated documents and their content throughout the continuum of their existence and supports record-keeping requirements. The IDCM model supports system capabilities for managing digital and physical documents, e-mail, engineering and technical drawings, document images, multimedia, and Web content. These systems may be deployed individually to address a specific requirement. However, due to the volume and varied formats of important documents held in digital format, these systems are often deployed collectively based on a strategic IDCM approach for better managing information assets. An organizational approach to IDCM supports enterprise knowledge strategies by providing the capability to capture, search, and retrieve documented information.
IDCM depends upon effective integration of organizational systems that together are used for managing both digital and physical document types. The scope of this management is across all stages of document lifecycles. It includes provision for distribution of the document content over intranets and the Internet.
Features of enabling IDCM technologies are described in the following section. The technologies may be differentiated into those with core capabilities and supporting technologies.
Core capabilities are: document management; e-mail management; drawing management; document imaging; Web content management; enterprise report management; and workflow. Supporting technologies include: Web services; database management systems; digital signatures; portals; universal interfaces; and network management.
Significant issues that need to be addressed with respect to IDCM solutions include the provision of seamless functionality that may be employed across different capabilities so that currency, integrity, and authority are managed effectively. These in turn must be complemented by user interfaces that provide stylistic consistency and that are augmented by metadata that enhances retrieval capabilities through the supporting technologies.
The following section itemizes the types of features that are required.
Key Terms in this Chapter
Document Capture: Registration of an object into a document, image, or content repository.
Recognition Technologies: Technologies such as barcode recognition, optical character recognition (OCR), intelligent character recognition (ICR), and optical mark recognition (OMR) that facilitate document registration and retrieval.
Document Management: Implements repository management controls over digital documents via integration with standard desktop authoring tools (word processing, spreadsheets, and other tools) and document library functionality. Registers and tracks physical documents.
Content Management: Implementation of a managed repository for digital assets such as documents, fragments of documents, images, and multimedia that are published to intranet and Internet WWW sites.
Workflow Software: Tools that deal with the automation of business processes in a managed environment.
Document Imaging: Scanning and conversion of hardcopy documents to either analogue (film) or digital image format.