In this chapter, the practical issue of realizing a necessary intelligence quotient for conceiving intelligent user interfaces (IUIs) on mobile devices is considered. Mobile computing scenarios differ radically from the normal fixed workstation environment that most people are familiar with. It is in this dynamicity and complexity that the key motivations for realizing IUIs on mobile devices may be found. Thus, the chapter initially motivates the need for the deployment of IUIs in mobile contexts by reflecting on the archetypical elements that comprise the average mobile user’s situation or context. A number of broad issues pertaining to the deployment of AI techniques on mobile devices are considered before a practical realisation of this objective through the intelligent agent paradigm is presented. It is the authors hope that a mature understanding of the mobile computing usage scenario, augmented with key insights into the practical deployment of AI in mobile scenarios, will aid software engineers and HCI professionals alike in the successful utilisation of intelligent techniques for a new generation of mobile services.
Key Terms in this Chapter
Intelligent Agent: Agents are software entities that encapsulate a number of attributes including autonomy, mobility, sociability, reactivity and proactivity amongst others. Agents may be reactive, deliberative or hybrid. Implicit in the agent construct is the requirement for a sophisticated reasoning ability, a classic example being agents modeled on the BDI architecture.
Mobile Computing: A computer usage paradigm where end-users access applications and services in diverse scenarios, while mobile. Mobile telephony is a popular realization of this paradigm, but wearable computing and telematic applications could also be considered as realistic interpretations of mobile computing.
Context: Context-aware computing considers various pertinent aspects of the end-user’s situation when delivering a service. These aspects, or contextual elements, are determined during invocation of the service and may include user profile, for example language, age, and so on. Spatial contextual elements, namely location and orientation, may also be considered.
Ubiquitous Computing: Conceived in the early 1990s, ubiquitous computing envisages a world of embedded devices, where computing artefacts are embedded in the physical environment and accessed in a transparent manner.
BDI Architecture: The Belief-Desire-Intention (BDI) architecture is an example of a sophisticated reasoning model based on mental constructs that can be used by intelligent agents. It is allows the modeling of agents behaviors in an intuitive manner that complements the human intellect.
Multi-Agent System: A suite of intelligent agents, seeking to solve some problem beyond their individual capabilities, come together to form a multi-agent system (MAS). These agents collaborate to fulfill individual and shared objectives.
Ambient Intelligence: (AmI) was conceived by the Information Society Technologies Advisory Group (ISTAG) as a means of facilitating intuitive interaction between people and ubiquitous computing environments. A key enabler of the AmI concept is the intelligent user interface.
Intelligent User Interface: Harnesses various techniques from artificial intelligence to adapt and configure the interface to an application such that the end-user’s experience is more satisfactory.