Internal Radionuclide Dosimetry using Quantitative 3-D Nuclear Medical Imaging

Internal Radionuclide Dosimetry using Quantitative 3-D Nuclear Medical Imaging

Ioannis Tsougos (University of Thessaly, Greece), George Loudos (Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Greece), Panagiotis Georgoulias (University of Thessaly, Greece), Konstantina S. Nikita (National Technical University of Athens, Greece) and Kiki Theodorou (University of Thessaly, Greece)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-314-2.ch014
OnDemand PDF Download:
$37.50

Abstract

Quantitative three-dimensional nuclear medical imaging plays a continuously increasing role in radionuclide dosimetry, allowing the development of patient – specific treatment planning systems. The established method for dosimetry is based on the measurement of the biokinetics by serial gamma camera scans, followed by calculations of the administered activity and the residence times, resulting in the radiation absorbed doses of critical organs. However, the quantification of the activity in different organs from planar data is hampered by inaccurate attenuation and scatter correction as well as due to background and organ overlay (Glatting 2006). Alternatively, dosimetry based on quantitative three-dimensional data is more accurate and allows a more individualized approach, provided that all effects that degrade the quantitative content of the images have been corrected for. In addition inhomogeneous organ accumulation of the radionuclide can be detected and possibly taken into account (De Jong 2004). This chapter provides adequate information on internal emitter dosimetry and a state of the art review of the current methodology.
Chapter Preview
Top

Introduction

In order to estimate the absorbed dose for all significant tissues in nuclear medicine, one must determine for each tissue the quantity of energy absorbed per unit mass. This yields the quantity absorbed dose, and can be extended to the calculation of dose equivalent if desired. This response and the prediction of toxicity is essential to rational the implementation of cancer therapy.

Nevertheless, to state that the absorbed dose alone would predict the radiobiologic response of tissue is an oversimplification that would certainly lead to hypo- or hyper- estimation of the radiation induced effects. It has already been recognized in radiotherapy that the response is affected by a number of parameters such as: the type of radiation (LET), the rate at which absorbed dose is delivered, the radiobiologic characteristics of the tumor or normal tissue etc. Moreover the anatomical characteristic of the patients have to be taken into account, since the presence of different structures affects the distribution of radiation dose.

Presently, nuclear medicine dosimetry is based on the measurement of the biokinetics of the radionuclide by serial gamma camera scans, followed by calculations comprising three steps. First the percentage of administered activity of the radiopharmaceutical must be determined for the accumulating organs for several scan times. Second these biokinetic data must be integrated to obtain the percentage of the number of decays in the source organs, i.e the residence times and third, the radiation absorbed doses of critical organs must be determined.

However, using planar data to quantify the activity in different organs may be severely affected by several factors, such as the inaccurate attenuation and scatter correction as well as the background and organ overlay.

Dosimetry that takes into account quantitative 3-dimensional data is more accurate and obviously allows the so called ‘tailor made’ approach, in terms of the individualization of therapy on each specific patient. Nevertheless there are factors that can potentially degrade the quantitative content of the images, or insert erroneous data, such as the inhomogeneous organ accumulation of the radionuclide, which have to be detected and taken into account.

The research on dosimetry is focused on the development of software tools, which allow the use of tomographic functional data (PET-SPECT) in conjunction with anatomical information from CT or MRI, providing a more accurate and detailed description of the individual patient situation. Firstly anatomical and functional data need to be registered and fused and then manual or automated Regions Of Interest (ROIs) are drawn. Hence dose calculation is based on dose kernel convolution methods, reliant on convolving the radioactivity distribution with a medium specific radionuclide dose-kernel, defined as the adsorbed dose per decay at a point away from the source. The innovation consists in the application of the CT information, which allows the use of different dose kernels depending on the different evaluated structures.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Monte Carlo: An analytical technique in which a large number of simulations are run using random quantities for uncertain variables and looking at the distribution of results to infer which values are most likely.

Dosimetry: The accurate measurement of the absorbed dose.

Nuclear Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the use of radioisotopes in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of disease. Nuclear medicine uses small amounts of radioactive materials or radiopharmaceuticals, substances that are attracted to specific organs, bones, or tissues.

Radionuclide Therapy: A form of cancer therapy, by the use of radionuclides that localise to certain organs (e.g., radioactive iodine or gallium), and deliver cytotoxic radiation doses to tumours.

Tomographic Data: Data acquired by radiologic / nuclear medicine imaging techniques for making detailed three-dimensional images of a plane section of a solid object.

Absorbed Dose: A general term denoting the quantity of radiation or energy absorbed. For special purposes it must be appropriately qualified. It is defined as absorbed dose per unit mass.

Treatment Planning: A system that calculates the dose that will be absorbed by a radionuclide therapy.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Reset
Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Preface
Themis P. Exarchos, Athanasios Papadopoulos, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
Chapter 1
Ioannis Dimou, Michalis Zervakis, David Lowe, Manolis Tsiknakis
The automation of diagnostic tools and the increasing availability of extensive medical datasets in the last decade have triggered the development... Sample PDF
Computational Methods and Tools for Decision Support in Biomedicine: An Overview of Algorithmic Challenges
$37.50
Chapter 2
William Hsu, Alex A.T. Bui, Ricky K. Taira, Hooshang Kangarloo
Though an unparalleled amount and diversity of imaging and clinical data are now collected as part of routine care, this information is not... Sample PDF
Integrating Imaging and Clinical Data for Decision Support
$37.50
Chapter 3
Spyretta Golemati, John Stoitsis, Konstantina S. Nikita
The estimation of motion of the myocardial and arterial wall is important for the quantification of tissue elasticity and contractility and has... Sample PDF
Analysis and Quantification of Motion within the Cardiovascular System: Implications for the Mechanical Strain of Cardiovascular Structures
$37.50
Chapter 4
Christos V. Bourantas, Katerina Naka, Dimitrios Fotiadis, Lampros Michalis
Intracoronary Ultrasound (ICUS) imaging is an intravascular catheter-based technique which provides real-time, high resolution, cross-sectional... Sample PDF
New Developments in Intracoronary Ultrasound Processing
$37.50
Chapter 5
Stavroula Mougiakakou, Ioannis Valavanis, Alexandra Nikita, Konstantina S. Nikita
Recent advances in computer science provide the intelligent computation tools needed to design and develop Diagnostic Support Systems (DSSs) that... Sample PDF
Diagnostic Support Systems and Computational Intelligence: Differential Diagnosis of Hepatic Lesions from Computed Tomography Images
$37.50
Chapter 6
Marotesa Voultsidou, J. Michael Herrmann
Indicative features of an fMRI data set can be evaluated by methods provided by theory of random matrices (RMT). RMT considers ensembles of matrices... Sample PDF
Significance Estimation in fMRI from Random Matrices
$37.50
Chapter 7
Dimitrios C. Karampinos, Robert Dawe, Konstantinos Arfanakis, John G. Georgiadis
Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (diffusion MRI) can provide important information about tissue microstructure by probing the diffusion of water... Sample PDF
Optimal Diffusion Encoding Strategies for Fiber Mapping in Diffusion MRI
$37.50
Chapter 8
Dimitrios G. Tsalikakis, Petros S. Karvelis, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
Segmentation plays a crucial role in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) applications, since it permits automated detection of regions of... Sample PDF
Segmentation of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Images
$37.50
Chapter 9
Katia Marina Passera, Luca Tommaso Mainardi
Image registration is the process of determining the correspondence of features between images collected at different times or using different... Sample PDF
Image Registration Algorithms for Applications in Oncology
$37.50
Chapter 10
Lena Costaridou, Spyros Skiadopoulos, Anna Karahaliou, Nikolaos Arikidis, George Panayiotakis
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is currently the most effective modality in detecting breast cancer... Sample PDF
Computer-Aided Diagnosis in Breast Imaging: Trends and Challenges
$37.50
Chapter 11
E. Kyriacou, C.I. Christodoulou, C. Loizou, M.S. Pattichis, C.S. Pattichis, S. Kakkos
Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the Western world and a major cause of disability in adults. The objective of this work was to... Sample PDF
Assessment of Stroke by Analysing Cartoid Plaque Morphology
$37.50
Chapter 12
Marios Neofytou, Constantinos Pattichis, Vasilios Tanos, Marios Pattichis, Eftyvoulos Kyriacou
The objective of this chapter is to propose a quantitative hysteroscopy imaging analysis system in gynaecological cancer and to provide the current... Sample PDF
Quantitative Analysis of Hysteroscopy Imaging in Gynecological Cancer
$37.50
Chapter 13
Thomas V. Kilindris, Kiki Theodorou
Patient anatomy, biochemical response, as well functional evaluation at organ level, are key fields that produce a significant amount of multi modal... Sample PDF
Combining Geometry and Image in Biomedical Systems: The RT TPS Case
$37.50
Chapter 14
Ioannis Tsougos, George Loudos, Panagiotis Georgoulias, Konstantina S. Nikita, Kiki Theodorou
Quantitative three-dimensional nuclear medical imaging plays a continuously increasing role in radionuclide dosimetry, allowing the development of... Sample PDF
Internal Radionuclide Dosimetry using Quantitative 3-D Nuclear Medical Imaging
$37.50
Chapter 15
Evanthia E. Tripoliti, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis, Konstantia Veliou
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality which can significantly improve our understanding of the brain... Sample PDF
Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Fiber Tractography
$37.50
Chapter 16
Anastasios Koutlas, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
The aim of this chapter is to analyze the recent advances in image processing and machine learning techniques with respect to facial expression... Sample PDF
Image Processing and Machine Learning Techniques for Facial Expression Recognition
$37.50
Chapter 17
Arcangelo Merla
This chapter presents an overview on recent developments in the field of clinical applications of the functional infrared imaging. The functional... Sample PDF
Developments and Advances in Biomedical Functional Infrared Imaging
$37.50
Chapter 18
Aristotelis Chatziioannou, Panagiotis Moulos
The completion of the Human Genome Project and the emergence of high-throughput technologies at the dawn of the new millennium, are rapidly changing... Sample PDF
DNA Microarrays: Analysis and Interpretation
$37.50
Chapter 19
Nikolaos Giannakeas, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
Microarray technology allows the comprehensive measurement of the expression level of many genes simultaneously on a common substrate. Typical... Sample PDF
Image Processing and Machine Learning Techniques for the Segmentation of cDNA
$37.50
Chapter 20
Petros S. Karvelis, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
Automated chromosome analysis is now becoming routine in most human cytogenetics laboratories. It involves both processing and analysis of digital... Sample PDF
Recent Advances in Automated Chromosome Image Analysis
$37.50
Chapter 21
O. Lezoray, G. Lebrun, C. Meurie, C. Charrier, A. Elmotataz, M. Lecluse
The segmentation of microscopic images is a challenging application that can have numerous applications ranging from prognosis to diagnosis.... Sample PDF
Machine Learning in Morphological Segmentation
$37.50
Chapter 22
Michael Haefner, Alfred Gangl, Michael Liedlgruber, A. Uhl, Andreas Vecsei, Friedrich Wrba
Wavelet-, Fourier-, and spatial domain-based texture classification methods have been used successfully for classifying zoom-endoscopic colon images... Sample PDF
Pit Pattern Classification Using Multichannel Features and Multiclassification
$37.50
Chapter 23
C. Papaodysseus, P. Rousopoulos, D. Arabadjis, M. Panagopoulos, P. Loumou
In this chapter the state of the art is presented in the domain of automatic identification and classification of bodies on the basis of their... Sample PDF
Automatic Identification and Elastic Properties of Deformed Objects Using their Microscopic Images
$37.50
Chapter 24
Alexia Giannoula, Richard S.C. Cobbold
“Elastography” or “elasticity imaging” can be defined as the science and methodology of estimating the mechanical properties of a medium (including... Sample PDF
Nonlinear Ultrasound Radiation-Force Elastography
$37.50
Chapter 25
Valentina Russo, Roberto Setola
The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview about models and methodologies used for the Dynamic Contrast Enhancement (DCE) analysis. DCE is a... Sample PDF
Dynamic Contrast Enhancement: Analysis's Models and Methodologies
$37.50
Chapter 26
George K. Matsopoulos
The accurate estimation of point correspondences is often required in a wide variety of medical image processing applications including image... Sample PDF
Automatic Correspondence Methods towards Point-Based Medical Image Registration: An Evaluation Study
$37.50
Chapter 27
Alberto Taboada-Crispi, Hichem Sahli, Denis Hernandez-Pacheco, Alexander Falcon-Ruiz
Various approaches have been taken to detect anomalies, with certain particularities in the medical image scenario, linked to other terms... Sample PDF
Anomaly Detection in Medical Image Analysis
$37.50
Chapter 28
C. Delgorge-Rosenberger, C. Rosenberger
The authors present in this chapter an overview on evaluation of medical image compression. The different methodologies used in the literature are... Sample PDF
Evaluation of Medical Image Compression
$37.50
Chapter 29
Charalampos Doukas, Ilias Maglogiannis
Medical images are often characterized by high complexity and consist of high resolution image files, introducing thus several issues regarding... Sample PDF
Advanced ROI Coding Techniques for Medical Imaging
$37.50
Chapter 30
Farhang Sahba
Ultrasound imaging now has widespread clinical use. It involves exposing a part of the body to highfrequency sound waves in order to generate images... Sample PDF
Segmentation Methods in Ultrasound Images
$37.50
About the Editors
About the Contributors