Introduction to Wireless Sensor Network Localization

Introduction to Wireless Sensor Network Localization

Guoqiang Mao (University of Sydney, Australia) and Baris Fidan (National ICT Australia and Australian National University, Australia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-396-8.ch001
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Abstract

Localization is an important aspect in the field of wireless sensor networks that has attracted significant research interest recently. The interest in wireless sensor network localization is expected to grow further with the advances in the wireless communication techniques and the sensing techniques, and the consequent proliferation of wireless sensor network applications. This chapter provides an overview of various aspects involved in the design and implementation of wireless sensor network localization systems. These can be broadly classified into three categories: the measurement techniques in sensor network localization, sensor network localization theory and algorithms, and experimental study and applications of sensor network localization techniques. This chapter also gives a brief introduction to the other chapters in the book with a focus on explaining how these chapters are related to each other and how topics covered in each chapter fit into the architecture of this book and the big picture of wireless sensor network localization.
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Introduction

Distributed sensor networks have been discussed for more than 30 years, but the vision of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been brought into reality only by the recent advances in wireless communications and electronics, which have enabled the development of low-cost, low-power and multi-functional sensors that are small in size and communicate over short distances. Today, cheap, smart sensors, networked through wireless links and deployed in large numbers, provide unprecedented opportunities for monitoring and controlling homes, cities, and the environment. In addition, networked sensors have a broad spectrum of applications in the defence area, generating new capabilities for reconnaissance and surveillance as well as other tactical applications (Chong & Kumar, 2003).

Localization (location estimation) capability is essential in most WSN applications. In environmental monitoring applications such as animal habitat monitoring, bush fire surveillance, water quality monitoring and precision agriculture, the measurement data are meaningless without an accurate knowledge of the location from where the data are obtained. Moreover, the availability of location information may enable a myriad of applications such as inventory management, intrusion detection, road traffic monitoring, health monitoring, reconnaissance and surveillance.

WSN localization techniques are used to estimate the locations of the sensors with initially unknown positions in a network using the available a priori knowledge of positions of a few specific sensors in the network and inter-sensor measurements such as distance, time difference of arrival, angle of arrival and connectivity. Sensors with the a priori known location information are called anchors and their locations can be obtained by using a global positioning system (GPS), or by installing anchors at points with known coordinates, etc. In applications requiring a global coordinate system, these anchors will determine the location of the sensor network in the global coordinate system. In applications where a local coordinate system suffices (e.g., in smart homes, hospitals or for inventory management where knowledge like in which room a sensor is located is sufficient), these anchors define the local coordinate system to which all other sensors are referred. Because of constraints on the cost and size of sensors, energy consumption, implementation environment (e.g., GPS is not accessible in some environments) and the deployment of sensors (e.g., sensors may be randomly scattered in the region), most sensors do not know their own locations. These sensors with unknown location information are called non-anchor nodes and their coordinates need to be estimated using a sensor network localization algorithm. In some other applications, e.g., for geographic routing in WSN, where there are no anchor nodes and also knowledge of the physical location of a sensor is unnecessary, people are more interested in knowing the position of a sensor relative to other sensors. In that case, sensor localization algorithms can be used to estimate the relative positions of sensors using inter-sensor measurements. The obtained estimated locations are usually a reflected, rotated and translated version of their global coordinates.

In this chapter, we provide an overview of various aspects of WSN localization with a focus on the techniques covered in the other chapters of this book. These chapters can be broadly classified into three categories: the measurement techniques in sensor network localization, sensor network localization theory and algorithms, and experimental study and applications of sensor network localization techniques.

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Table of Contents
Preface
Guoqiang Mao, Baris Fidan
Acknowledgment
Guoqiang Mao, Baris Fidan
Chapter 1
Guoqiang Mao, Baris Fidan
Localization is an important aspect in the field of wireless sensor networks that has attracted significant research interest recently. The interest... Sample PDF
Introduction to Wireless Sensor Network Localization
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Chapter 2
Fredrik Gustafsson, Fredrik Gunnarsson
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) localization relies on measurements. Availability of, and the information content in, these measurements depend on... Sample PDF
Measurements Used in Wireless Sensor Networks Localization
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Chapter 3
Ferit Ozan Akgul, Mohammad Heidari, Nayef Alsindi, Kaveh Pahlavan
This chapter discusses localization in WSNs specifically focusing on the physical limitations imposed by the wireless channel. Location awareness... Sample PDF
Localization Algorithms and Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks: Monitoring and Surveillance Techniques for Target Tracking
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Chapter 4
Steven Lanzisera, Kristofer S.J. Pister
Localization or geolocation of wireless sensors usually requires accurate estimates of the distance between nodes in the network. RF ranging... Sample PDF
RF Ranging Methods and Performance Limits for Sensor Localization
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Chapter 5
Neal Patwari, Piyush Agrawal
A number of practical issues are involved in the use of measured received signal strength (RSS) for purposes of localization. This chapter focuses... Sample PDF
Calibration and Measurement of Signal Strength for Sensor Localization
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Chapter 6
Bill Jackson, Tibor Jordán
In the network localization problem the goal is to determine the location of all nodes by using only partial information on the pairwise distances... Sample PDF
Graph Theoretic Techniques in the Analysis of Uniquely Localizable Sensor Networks
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Chapter 7
Jia Fang, Dominique Duncan, A. Stephen Morse
The sensor network localization problem with distance information is to determine the positions of all sensors in a network given the positions of... Sample PDF
Sequential Localization with Inaccurate Measurements
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Chapter 8
MDS-Based Localization  (pages 198-229)
Ahmed A. Ahmed, Xiaoli Li, Yi Shang, Hongchi Shi
The authors present several network node localization methods that are based on multidimensional scaling (MDS) techniques. Four algorithms are... Sample PDF
MDS-Based Localization
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Chapter 9
Saikat Ray, Wei Lai, Dong Guo, Ioannis Ch. Paschalidis
The authors present a unified stochastic localization approach that allows a wireless sensor network to determine the physical locations of its... Sample PDF
Statistical Location Detection
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Chapter 10
A. S. Krishnakumar, P. Krishnan
In this chapter, the authors concentrate on signal strength-based localization in indoor wireless networks, with emphasis on 802.11 networks. The... Sample PDF
Theory and Practice of Signal Strength-Based Localization in Indoor Environments
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Chapter 11
Eiman Elnahrawy, Richard P. Martin
This chapter discusses radio-based positioning. It surveys and compares several received signal strength localization approaches from two broad... Sample PDF
Theory and Practice of Signal Strength-Based Localization in Indoor Environments
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Chapter 12
Duc A. Tran, XuanLong Nguyen, Thinh Nguyen
A vast majority of localization techniques proposed for sensor networks are based on triangulation methods in Euclidean geometry. They utilize the... Sample PDF
Machine Learning Based Localization
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Chapter 13
Moshe Laifenfeld, Ari Trachtenberg, David Starobinski
Various real-life environments are exceptionally harsh for signal propagation, rendering well-known trilateration techniques (e.g. GPS) unsuitable... Sample PDF
Robust Localization Using Identifying Codes
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Chapter 14
Michael Allen, Sebnem Baydere, Elena Gaura, Gurhan Kucuk
This chapter introduces a methodological approach to the evaluation of localization algorithms. The chapter contains a discussion of evaluation... Sample PDF
Evaluation of Localization Algorithms
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Chapter 15
Michael L. McGuire, Konstantinos N. Plataniotis
Node localization is an important issue for wireless sensor networks to provide context for collected sensory data. Sensor network designers need to... Sample PDF
Accuracy Bounds for Wireless Localization Methods
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Chapter 16
Junaid Ansari, Janne Riihijärvi, Petri Mähönen
The authors discuss algorithms and solutions for signal processing and filtering for localization and tracking applications in Wireless Sensor... Sample PDF
Experiences in Data Processing and Bayesian Filtering Applied to Localization and Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks
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Chapter 17
Mohamed EL-Darieby, Hazem Ahmed, Mahmoud Halfawy, Ahmed Amer, Baher Abdulhai
Large urban areas in North America as well as many other parts of the world are experiencing unprecedented and soaring congestion problems. It is... Sample PDF
A Wireless Mesh Network Platform for Vehicle Positioning and Location Tracking
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Chapter 18
Thomas Watteyne, Mischa Dohler, Isabelle Augé-Blum, Dominique Barthel
This chapter deals with self-organization and communication for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). It shows that nodes do not always need to know... Sample PDF
Beyond Localization: Communicating Using Virtual Coordinates
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About the Contributors