Introduction

Introduction

Katina Michael (University of Wollongong, Australia) and M.G. Michael (University of Wollongong, Australia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-795-9.ch001
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Abstract

This study is concerned with the automatic identification (auto-ID) industry which first came to prominence in the early 1970s. Auto-ID belongs to that larger sector known as information technology (IT). As opposed to manual identification, auto-ID is the act of identifying a living or nonliving thing without direct human intervention. Of course, the process of auto-ID data capture and collection requires some degree of human intervention, but the very act of authenticating or verifying an entity can now be done automatically. An entity can possess a unique code indicating personal identification or a group code indicating conformity to a common set of characteristics. Some of the most prominent examples of auto-ID techniques that will be explored in this book include bar code, magnetic-stripe, integrated circuit (IC), biometric and radio-frequency identification (RFID). The devices in which these techniques are packaged include a variety of form factors such as labels and tags, card technologies, human feature recognition, and implants. Generally the devices are small in size, not larger than that of a standard credit card. There has been a visible trend towards miniaturization through the development of mini-cards and tiny RFID tags (some even as minute as pinheads).
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Auto-Id Technologies

This study is concerned with the automatic identification (auto-ID)automatic identification (auto-ID) industry which first came to prominence in the early 1970s. Auto-ID belongs to that larger sector known as information technology (IT). As opposed to manual identification, auto-ID is the act of identifying a living or nonliving thing without direct human intervention. Of course, the process of auto-ID data capture and collection requires some degree of human intervention, but the very act of authenticating or verifying an entity can now be done automatically. An entity can possess a unique code indicating personal identification or a group code indicating conformity to a common set of characteristics. Some of the most prominent examples of auto-ID techniques that will be explored in this book include bar code, magnetic-stripe, integrated circuit (IC)integrated circuit (IC)integrated circuit (IC), biometric and radio-frequency identification (RFID). The devices in which these techniques are packaged include a variety of form factors such as labels and tags, card technologies, human feature recognition, and implants. Generally the devices are small in size, not larger than that of a standard credit card. There has been a visible trend towards miniaturization through the development of mini-cards and tiny RFID tags (some even as minute as pinheads).

Auto-ID Applications

Traditionally auto-ID has been synonymous with bar code labels on supermarket store items, financial transaction cards (FTCs) used to withdraw money from automatic teller machines (ATMs)automatic teller machines (ATMs), and subscriber identity module (SIM)subscriber identity module (SIM) cards in mobile phones. Today auto-ID devices are being applied in very different ways to what they were originally intended. For instance, frequent air travelers can bypass immigration queues using their biometric trait, prisoners can serve their sentences from home by wearing electronic tags and animals can be identified by implanted transponders. While the nature of auto-ID is one that is innately compatible to mass market diffusion, it does also accommodate well for niche applications where for instance security is paramount and access is limited to only a few authorized persons. Auto-ID has also become an integral part of electronic commerce (EC)electronic commerce (EC)electronic commerce (EC) applications, particularly those related to e-government. Increasingly we are seeing bar code scanners and RFID readers integrated onto mobile devices.

The Significance of Auto-ID

Prior to the 1970s who could have envisaged that every packaged item sold on a supermarket shelf would be equipped with a bar code label. And that by the early 1990s the majority of the population in more developed countries (MDCs)more developed countries (MDCs) would be carrying a magnetic-stripe or smart card to conduct financial transactions, without having to visit a bank branch. And furthermore, by the turn of the twenty-first century that it would be enforceable by law to implant domesticated animals with a microchip. These examples not only indicate the pervasiveness of auto-ID but also how reliant the world has become upon the technology, including public and private enterprise. The impact of auto-ID is irreversible, an essential part of life. It is interwoven in a highly structured manner with the way we live and work and is a seamless part of our day-to-day routine activities. The technology is so widespread and diffused that it seems to possess an almost omnipresent quality.

Complete Chapter List

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Dedication
Table of Contents
Foreword
Elaine Lawrence
Acknowledgment
Katina Michael, M.G. Michael
Chapter 1
Introduction  (pages 1-24)
Katina Michael, M.G. Michael
This study is concerned with the automatic identification (auto-ID) industry which first came to prominence in the early 1970s. Auto-ID belongs to... Sample PDF
Introduction
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Chapter 2
Innovation Studies  (pages 25-42)
Katina Michael, M.G. Michael
This chapter will explore literature in the field of innovation in order to establish a conceptual framework for the auto-ID trajectory research.... Sample PDF
Innovation Studies
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Chapter 3
Katina Michael, M.G. Michael
This chapter takes the reader through a historical tour of identification techniques from ancient times to the present. The histories shed light on... Sample PDF
Historical Background: From Manual Identification to Auto-ID
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Chapter 4
Katina Michael, M.G. Michael
National security measures can be defined as those technical and non-technical measures that have been initiated as a means to curb breaches in... Sample PDF
Globalization and the Changing Face of IDentification
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Chapter 5
Katina Michael, M.G. Michael
Of all the auto-ID technologies in the global market today, barcode is the most widely used. In 1994, Cohen (p. 55) wrote “...barcode technology is... Sample PDF
Barcode: The Pioneer Auto-ID Technology
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Chapter 6
Katina Michael, M.G. Michael
Almost simultaneously that the retail industry underwent revolutionary changes with the introduction of bar code, the financial industry adopted... Sample PDF
Magnetic-Stripe Cards: The Consolidating Force
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Chapter 7
Katina Michael, M.G. Michael
The history of the smart card begins as far back as 1968. By that time magnetic-stripe cards while not widespread, had been introduced into the... Sample PDF
Smart Cards: The Next Generation
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Chapter 8
Katina Michael, M.G. Michael
Biometrics is not only considered a more secure way to identify an individual but also a more convenient technique whereby the individual does not... Sample PDF
Biometrics: In Search of a Foolproof Solution
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Chapter 9
Katina Michael, M.G. Michael
Radio frequency identification (RFID) in the form of tags or transponders is a means of auto-ID that can be used for tracking and monitoring... Sample PDF
RFID Tags and Transponders: The New Kid on the Block
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Chapter 10
Katina Michael, M.G. Michael
This chapter analyses the findings from the case studies on bar codes, magnetic-stripe cards, smart cards, biometrics and RFID tags and... Sample PDF
The Auto-ID Technology System
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Chapter 11
Katina Michael, M.G. Michael
This chapter is about geographic information systems (GIS) and its relevance to the location-based services industry. One might initially ask how... Sample PDF
Geographic Information Systems & Location-Based Services
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Chapter 12
The Auto-ID Trajectory  (pages 329-363)
Katina Michael, M.G. Michael
This chapter considers the automatic identification (auto-ID) trajectory within the context of converging disciplines to predict the realm of likely... Sample PDF
The Auto-ID Trajectory
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Chapter 13
Katina Michael, M.G. Michael
The number of automatic identification (auto-ID) technologies being utilized in eBusiness applications is growing rapidly. With an increasing trend... Sample PDF
The Socio-Ethical Implications of Automatic Identification and Location Services
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Chapter 14
Katina Michael, M.G. Michael
When Jacques Ellul (1964, p. 432) predicted the use of “electronic banks” in his book, The Technological Society, he was not referring to the... Sample PDF
The Rise of the Electrophorus
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Chapter 15
Uberveillance  (pages 464-484)
Katina Michael, M.G. Michael
Uberveillance, also überveillance, is an above and beyond, an exaggerated, an almost omnipresent 24/7 electronic surveillance. It is a surveillance... Sample PDF
Uberveillance
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Chapter 16
Conclusion  (pages 485-496)
Katina Michael, M.G. Michael
This chapter is dedicated to identifying the main outcomes of the study and reflections on the future directions of the technologies that were under... Sample PDF
Conclusion
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Acronyms and Abbreviations
About the Contributors