Many universities and private corporations are investing significant capital in e-learning systems. Full understanding of the factors contributing to learners’ perceived effectiveness of e-learning systems will help institutions channel funding to effective factors and redesign or eliminate non-effective factors. However, learners’ perceived effectiveness of such systems has not been fully explored in prior studies. Piccoli, Ahmad, and Ives (2001) argue that interest in e-learning environments is growing rapidly; however, “a broad framework identifying the theoretical constructs and relationships in this domain has yet to be developed” (p. 403). Alavi and Leidner (2001b) concluded that “research that helps uncover the important attributes of VLS [virtual learning systems]…will be critical to our understanding of VLS effectiveness” (p. 30). In prior study, Alavi and Leidner (2001a) also concluded that: “most of the recent attempts at studying TML [technology mediated learning] in IS [information systems] research tended to adopt an overly simplistic view of this phenomenon” (p. 9).