Invisibility and Visibility: The Shadows of Artificial Intelligence

Invisibility and Visibility: The Shadows of Artificial Intelligence

Cecile K.M. Crutzen (Open University, The Netherlands) and Hans-Werner Hein (Verlässliche IT-Systeme, Germany)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-354-8.ch024
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Abstract

A vision of future daily life is explored in Ambient Intelligence (AmI). It follows the assumption that information technology should disappear into our environment to bring humans an easy and entertaining life. The mental, physical, and methodical invisibility of artificial intelligent tools and environments will have an effect on the relation between the activities of both, users and designers. The infiltration of reality with sensing, computing, transmitting and acting hardware will cause the construction of new meanings on interaction in general because the “visible” acting of people will be preceded, accompanied and followed by the invisible and visible acting of artificial intelligent tools and environments and their providers. Sociability in such an interaction world stretches between the feelings of “being in security” and “being in control”. Invisibility management could enable situated veiling and unveiling. Critical Transformative Rooms, where human and artificial actors can negotiate about the change of meanings, are the approach to deal with the users’ emotions of frozenness, despair, fear, doubt and trust.
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2. Background

“This is because proceedings are generally kept secret not only from the public but also from the accused.”-- Franz Kafka, The Trial

2.1. Ambient Intelligence, the

Key Terms in this Chapter

Critical Transformative Room: In a Critical Transformative Room two or more actors mutually interact about fear, doubt, change, truth and any other emotionality and sociability within an application frame. A Critical Transformative Room creates a space where the preferred interpretation of the actions of the artificial actors can be negotiated by the human actors. In a Critical Transformative Room doubt can occur as a constructive strategy and can be effective in a change of the acting itself. Creating such a room requires actors who already have a habit of causing doubt and who accept that truth always is situated.

Invisibility and Visibility: The term “invisible” includes anything, what humans cannot or can only partly cognize using their senses: hearing, seeing, touching, smelling and tasting. Making invisible is “veiling”, making visible is “unveiling”. The visibility of artificial actors is limited within the technical constraints of their construction. But their invisibility is unlimited.

Methodological Invisibility: Methodological invisibility on the users’ side is caused by the designers closing almost any options for “post-design by user”. Designers focus on security, non-ambiguity and are afraid of the complex and the unpredictable in the user world. By the use of expert speak, syntax-level programming languages, and mathematically over-abstracted methods within a closed interaction world of “we-can makers”, the dominance of design over use is established. Methodological invisibility on the designers’ side occurs, when these ICT professionals are frequently not designing, but using established methods and theories without appropriate doubt.

Ambient Intelligence: ISTAG 1999 states, “Ambient Intelligence should be the result of the convergence of three key technologies: ‘Ubiquitous Computing’, ‘Ubiquitous Communication’, and ‘Intelligent User-Friendly Interfaces’. AmI is unobtrusive and often invisible, being embedded in everyday objects such as furniture, clothes, vehicles, roads and smart materials. Interaction is relaxing and enjoyable for the citizen, and does not involve a steep learning curve; otherwise stated, the dominant mode of interaction will become laid-back rather than lean-forward. The technology is all around us but almost invisible: it is everywhere and yet in our consciousness is nowhere unless we need it. The resulting landscape is embedded, personalized, adaptive, and anticipatory. People will be surrounded by intelligent and intuitive interfaces recognizing and responding to the presence of individuals. AmI is presponsive instead of being simply responsive.”

Physical Invisibility: Physical invisibility of sensing, computing, transmitting and acting hardware is driven by two trends. One is the continued process of miniaturization - down to nanotechnological intelligent dust. The other is global wireless Internet access which allows such devices to be included in almost any object of everyday life.

Emotional and social: Artificial intelligent tools and environments do not have emotions, they simulate emotionality. User emotions connected with the diverse invisibilities of artificial intelligent tools and environments are “frozenness” and “despair” (see Figure 1: Critical Transformative Room “Use–Design”). “Doubt” and “trust” are the basic emotions for sociability. Making a user feel “in-security” and “in-control” at the same time, is impossible. Users might express their emotions in “situated ratings” to give feedback to artificial products and their designers.

Mental Invisibility: Artificial products are mental invisible if they are taken for granted, when they are thought of as a natural part of daily life. Their evident and continuous availability causes their disappearance in the complexity of our environment. Humans integrate the ready-made technological acting in their routine acting and accept it without reflection and emotions. Mental invisibility can be seen as precondition for the acceptance, the stabilization of use, and the domestication of technology, but it should not be the frozen final-state of human actors.

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Craig DeLancey
Preface
Jordi Vallverdú, David Casacuberta
Chapter 1
Oscar Deniz, Javier Lorenzo, Mario Hernández, Modesto Castrillón
Social intelligence seems to obviously require emotions. People have emotions, recognize them in others and also express them. A wealth of... Sample PDF
Emotional Modeling in an Interactive Robotic Head
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Chapter 2
Cyril Laurier, Perfecto Herrera
Creating emotionally sensitive machines will significantly enhance the interaction between humans and machines. In this chapter we focus on enabling... Sample PDF
Automatic Detection of Emotion in Music: Interaction with Emotionally Sensitive Machines
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Chapter 3
Christoph Bartneck, Michael J. Lyons
The human face plays a central role in most forms of natural human interaction so we may expect that computational methods for analysis of facial... Sample PDF
Facial Expression Analysis, Modeling and Synthesis: Overcoming the Limitations of Artificial Intelligence with the Art of the Soluble
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Chapter 4
Sajal Chandra Banik, Keigo Watanabe, Maki K. Habib, Kiyotaka Izumi
Multi-robot team work is necessary for complex tasks which cannot be performed by a single robot. To get the required performance and reliability... Sample PDF
Multirobot Team Work with Benevolent Characters: The Roles of Emotions
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Chapter 5
Matthias Scheutz, Paul Schermerhorn
Effective decision-making under real-world conditions can be very difficult as purely rational methods of decision-making are often not feasible or... Sample PDF
Affective Goal and Task Selection for Social Robots
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Chapter 6
Christopher P. Lee-Johnson, Dale A. Carnegie
The hypothesis that artificial emotion-like mechanisms can improve the adaptive performance of robots and intelligent systems has gained... Sample PDF
Robotic Emotions: Navigation with Feeling
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Chapter 7
C. Gros
All self-active living beings need to solve the motivational problem—the question of what to do at any moment of their life. For humans and... Sample PDF
Emotions, Diffusive Emotional Control and the Motivational Problem for Autonomous Cognitive Systems
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Chapter 8
Bruce J. MacLennan
This chapter addresses the “Hard Problem” of consciousness in the context of robot emotions. The Hard Problem, as defined by Chalmers, refers to the... Sample PDF
Robots React, but Can They Feel?
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Chapter 9
Mercedes García-Ordaz, Rocío Carrasco-Carrasco, Francisco José Martínez-López
It is contended here that the emotional elements and features of human reasoning should be taken into account when designing the personality of... Sample PDF
Personality and Emotions in Robotics from the Gender Perspective
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Chapter 10
Antoni Gomila, Alberto Amengual
In this chapter we raise some of the moral issues involved in the current development of robotic autonomous agents. Starting from the connection... Sample PDF
Moral Emotions for Autonomous Agents
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Chapter 11
Pietro Cipresso, Jean-Marie Dembele, Marco Villamira
In this work, we present an analytical model of hyper-inflated economies and develop a computational model that permits us to consider expectations... Sample PDF
An Emotional Perspective for Agent-Based Computational Economics
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Chapter 12
Michel Aubé
The Commitment Theory of Emotions is issued from a careful scrutiny of emotional behavior in humans and animals, as reported in the literature on... Sample PDF
Unfolding Commitments Management: A Systemic View of Emotions
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Chapter 13
Sigerist J. Rodríguez, Pilar Herrero, Olinto J. Rodríguez
Today, realism and coherence are highly searched qualities in agent’s behavior; but these qualities cannot be achieved completely without... Sample PDF
A Cognitive Appraisal Based Approach for Emotional Representation
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Chapter 14
Clément Raïevsky, François Michaud
Emotion plays several important roles in the cognition of human beings and other life forms, and is therefore a legitimate inspiration for providing... Sample PDF
Emotion Generation Based on a Mismatch Theory of Emotions for Situated Agents
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Chapter 15
Artificial Surprise  (pages 267-291)
Luis Macedo, Amilcar Cardoso, Rainer Reisenzein, Emiliano Lorini
This chapter reviews research on computational models of surprise. Part 1 begins with a description of the phenomenon of surprise in humans, reviews... Sample PDF
Artificial Surprise
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Chapter 16
Tom Adi
A new theory of emotions is derived from the semantics of the language of emotions. The sound structures of 36 Old Arabic word roots that express... Sample PDF
A Theory of Emotions Based on Natural Language Semantics
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Chapter 17
Huma Shah, Kevin Warwick
The Turing Test, originally configured as a game for a human to distinguish between an unseen and unheard man and woman, through a text-based... Sample PDF
Emotion in the Turing Test: A Downward Trend for Machines in Recent Loebner Prizes
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Chapter 18
Félix Francisco Ramos Corchado, Héctor Rafael Orozco Aguirre, Luis Alfonso Razo Ruvalcaba
Emotions play an essential role in the cognitive processes of an avatar and are a crucial element for modeling its perception, learning, decision... Sample PDF
Artificial Emotional Intelligence in Virtual Creatures
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Chapter 19
Sarantos I. Psycharis
In our study we collected data with respect to cognitive variables (learning outcome), metacognitive indicators (knowledge about cognition and... Sample PDF
Physics and Cognitive-Emotional-Metacognitive Variables: Learning Performance in the Environment of CTAT
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Chapter 20
Anthony G. Francis Jr., Manish Mehta, Ashwin Ram
Believable agents designed for long-term interaction with human users need to adapt to them in a way which appears emotionally plausible while... Sample PDF
Emotional Memory and Adaptive Personalities
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Chapter 21
Dorel Gorga, Daniel K. Schneider
The purpose of this contribution is to discuss conceptual issues and challenges related to the integration of emotional agents in the design of... Sample PDF
Computer-Based Learning Environments with Emotional Agents
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Chapter 22
Emotional Ambient Media  (pages 443-459)
Artur Lugmayr, Tillmann Dorsch, Pabo Roman Humanes
The “medium is the message”: nowadays the medium as such is non-distinguishable from its presentation environment. However, what is the medium in an... Sample PDF
Emotional Ambient Media
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Chapter 23
Jordi Vallverdú, David Casacuberta
During the previous stage of our research we developed a computer simulation (called ‘The Panic Room’ or, more simply, ‘TPR’) dealing with synthetic... Sample PDF
Modelling Hardwired Synthetic Emotions: TPR 2.0
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Chapter 24
Cecile K.M. Crutzen, Hans-Werner Hein
A vision of future daily life is explored in Ambient Intelligence (AmI). It follows the assumption that information technology should disappear into... Sample PDF
Invisibility and Visibility: The Shadows of Artificial Intelligence
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About the Contributors