IPRM: The Integrated Project Risk Model

IPRM: The Integrated Project Risk Model

Fayez Ahmad Albadri (ADMA-OPCO, Abu Dhabi, UAE)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-400-2.ch017
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An overwhelming number of Information Technology (IT) projects experience persistent problems and failures. This chapter reflects on some of the important aspects of IT Project Management as applied to the implementation and post-implementation of Enterprise Information Systems and ERP applications. The proposition is based on the author’s professional experience as a system consultant, a manager and an educator. It also echoes some of the important findings of a major action research undertaken by the author over seven years, where he had a dual role as a project resource and a researcher, allowing him a first hand experience of enterprise applications issues and problems, culminating in a clear insight to why IT projects fail and how to overcome persisting inadequacies that lead to project failures. By investigating 25 major IT projects and analysing the variables that influence project performance, the research has successfully developed, tested and refined a hypothesised risk-based management model. With its components, processes, metrics and tools clearly defined and characterised, the Integrated Project-Risk Management (IPRM) model and system are presented as viable alternatives to conventional project management approaches and tools.
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Research Background

To establish a clear context of the research on hand and to prepare for a clear definition of the research question, scope and objectives was only possible through a comprehensive literature review of the relevant issues, the outcome of which is summarized as follows:

Information Technology is clearly an important industry and discipline, with far-reaching impact on all aspects of life. The discipline has accomplished milestones in terms of technology development, and indications are that its importance and widespread applicability will continue to expand, with increased IT investment in areas such as hardware infrastructure projects, software development and enterprise applications implementations. The literature emphasises the persisting issues of coping with the change associated with technology adoption and the definition of the role of IT in business and in relation to other disciplines.

The mishandling and mismanagement of IT projects is one of the main themes of the research. IT Projects are the vehicles for adopting, deploying, implementing or upgrading IT, and yet they are different from those of other disciplines, because of their environment, technical complexity, dynamic nature, relative uniqueness, strong impact on business processes, strong impact on business culture and users attitudes, varying stakeholders expectations and acceptability, interrelationships with other disciplines, and unproven return on investment (Anderson et al., 2002, Yeo 2002, Niazi et al., 2003, Westerveld 2003, Peterson et al., 2002; Ross 2003).

The literature has highlighted the unsatisfactory record of IT projects in terms of failure to be delivered on time and within budget, or to meet satisfactory scope and quality of deliverables (Flowers, 1996; Glass, 1997; Sauer, 1999; Cunningham, 1999; KPMG, 2002; Johnson et al., 2001; Standish 1995; Standish, 1998; Standish, 2004; Lemon et al., 2002). Many projects suffer from poor technical performance, system bugs, and data and security problems, and fail to improve the business or even to realise the sought benefits or returns on investment (McManus and Wood-Harper, 2003). Overall, IT projects are important, different, risky, and generally perceived as failures.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Term 03-Project Performance Outcome (PPO): The investigations of Project Performance Outcome (PPO), used in the research as a measure of the projects’ final performance and also indicate the relative success or failure of projects to achieve their goals incorporating the following indicators: Quality, Cost, Time, User Acceptance, Technical Status and Business Value.

Term 02-Issues-Concerns-Problems-Threats (ICPT): The investigations of projects’ ‘Issues, Concerns, Problems and Threats’ (ICPT) commonly used in different system implementation methodologies and IT projects

Project Health Indicator (PHI): The measurement of selected project health indicators (PHI) that combine four attributes of the project: Project Performance, Project Vulnerability, Project Cohesiveness and Project Continuity.

Term 01-Practice Suitability and Effectiveness (PSE): The examination of Practices Suitability and Effectiveness (PSE) to evaluate the appropriateness of the main systems and components proposed for the IPRM model.

Complete Chapter List

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Robert K. Hiltbrand
Terry T. Kidd
Terry T. Kidd
Chapter 1
James W. Price Jr., Pamila Dembla
As exploratory research, the chapter’s aim is to assess if Sun-Tzu’s application of Taoist principles are applicable to the problem domain of... Sample PDF
The Tao To Understanding Enterprise It Project Complexity: Sun-Tzu's Five Factors Revisited
Chapter 2
A. J. Gilbert Silvius
This chapter describes a study into the expected development of the competences of the project manager in the year 2027. The study was performed... Sample PDF
Project Management 2027: The Future of Project Management
Chapter 3
Gregory J. Skulmoski, Francis T. Hartman
The purpose of this research was to investigate the soft competencies by project phase that IT project managers, hybrid and technical team members... Sample PDF
The Progression Towards Project Management Competence
Chapter 4
Ralf Müller
This chapter addresses project managers’ leadership styles, mainly from the perspective of technology projects. It starts by defining and outlining... Sample PDF
Leadership in Technology Project Management
Chapter 5
Melanie S. Karas, Mahesh S. Raisinghani, Kerry S. Webb
A project manager’s role on any project goes far beyond task-related deliverables. Although the project manager must be able to effectively manage... Sample PDF
The Importance of Leadership in Project Management
Chapter 6
Jaby Mohammed
This chapter introduces the concept of technology management by objectives. Technology is one of the fastest moving elements in the 21st Century... Sample PDF
Technology Management by Objectives (TMO)
Chapter 7
Gary Pan
The goal of any product is to be used. In a very real sense, people judge the success or failure of any product by the extent to which it is used by... Sample PDF
Examining Stakeholders' Roles in Influencing IT Project Cancellation Decisions
Chapter 8
Daniel W. Surry
This chapter will discuss more than 20 system development life cycles (SDLC) found in the Information Technology project management arena, whereby... Sample PDF
Bringing the User into the Project Development Process
Chapter 9
Evon M. O. Abu-Taieh, Asim A. El Sheikh, Jeihan M. Abu-Tayeh, Maha T. El-Mahied
This chapter uses the Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) theory and examines a business case, highlighting certain gaps in the theory. First, confusion... Sample PDF
Information Technology Projects System Development Life Cycles: Comparative Study
Chapter 10
Francisco Chia Cua, Tony C. Garrett
This chapter introduces the Firm-Level Value Creation Model as a means of planning Information Systems projects based on their potential for... Sample PDF
Analyzing Diffusion and Value Creation Dimensions of a Business Case of Replacing Enterprise Systems
Chapter 11
Otavio Prospero Sanchez, Alberto Luiz Albertin
In this chapter the authors investigate the management of service innovation projects; can ICT based service innovation be facilitated by... Sample PDF
IT Project Planning based on Business Value Generation
Chapter 12
Bendik Bygstad, Gjermund Lanestedt
This chapter provides a framework for technology project implementation in systems where the human is an integral element of the completed project.... Sample PDF
Managing ICT Based Service Innovation
Chapter 13
Katy E. Ellis
Project management is a carefully planned, organized effort to manage the resources in order to successfully accomplish specific project goals and... Sample PDF
Employee Preparation, Participation, and Performance
Chapter 14
Jaby Mohammed, Ali Alavizadeh
This chapter provides a fundamental yet comprehensive coverage of quality management. Bringing managers and engineers the most up-to-date quality... Sample PDF
Quality Assurance in Project Management
Chapter 15
Sohail Anwar
Project management is a carefully planned, organized effort to manage the resources in order to successfully accomplish specific project goals and... Sample PDF
Quality Management and Control
Chapter 16
Dawn M. Owens, Deepak Khazanchi
Successful implementation of IT (information technology) projects is a critical strategic and competitive necessity for firms in all industrial... Sample PDF
Software Quality Assurance
Chapter 17
Fayez Ahmad Albadri
An overwhelming number of Information Technology (IT) projects experience persistent problems and failures. This chapter reflects on some of the... Sample PDF
IPRM: The Integrated Project Risk Model
Chapter 18
Technical Risk Management  (pages 283-294)
Pete Hylton
In today’s highly competitive industrial environment, many high-tech businesses are using Technical Risk Management (TRM) in their engineering... Sample PDF
Technical Risk Management
Chapter 19
Lauren Fancher
IT projects across all sectors are relying on more iterative methodologies that can employ early and frequent assessment and evaluation processes in... Sample PDF
Early, Often, and Repeat: Assessment and Evaluation Methodology for Ensuring Stakeholder Satisfaction with Information Technology Projects
Chapter 20
Chad J. Cray
Considering the high failure rate of information technology (IT) projects over the last 40 years, project managers should use all the tools at their... Sample PDF
A Needle in a Haystack: Choosing the Right Development Methodology for IT Projects
Chapter 21
Mysore Narayanan
In this chapter, the author describes how one can implement and incorporate creative techniques to design, develop, document and disseminate a... Sample PDF
Project Management Assessment Methods
Chapter 22
Mario Vanhoucke
It is well-known that well managed and controlled projects are more likely to be delivered on time and within budget. The construction of a... Sample PDF
Static and Dynamic Determinants of Earned Value Based Time Forecast Accuracy
Chapter 23
Michele De Lorenzi
This chapter presents a technology exploration process designed to support service innovation for information and communication technologies in a... Sample PDF
Technology Exploration Process: From Technology to New Services
Chapter 24
Henryk R. Marcinkiewicz
Three models structure the planning for technology integration into instruction. Institutional needs are assessed for three dimensions suggested in... Sample PDF
Planning for Integrating Technology
Chapter 25
Michael Crow
Kansas State University has ensured greatly increased academic involvement in the implementation of its new student information system through the... Sample PDF
University Task Force Deepens Academic Involvement in ERP System
Chapter 26
Joni A. Amorim, Carlos Machado, Rosana G.S. Miskulin, Mauro S. Miskulin
The production of quality educational multimedia content involves both its publication and its use, considering aspects ranging from metadata... Sample PDF
Production, Publication, and Use of Educational Multimedia Content in Brazil: Challenges and Opportunities in Real World Technology Projects
Chapter 27
Hasan Tinmaz
Technology planning is an indispensable activity for all higher education institutions nowadays. The major purpose of the technology planning is to... Sample PDF
Instructional Technology Plans for Higher Education Institutions
Chapter 28
Patricia McGee, Veronica Diaz
The rapid proliferation of e-learning tools that offer low or no cost investment and are not housed on institutional servers, has made it very... Sample PDF
Shifting from Classroom to Online Delivery
Chapter 29
Bimal P. Nepal, Leslie Monplaisir
Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in automotive industry are faced with the conflicting goals of creating vehicles with higher reliability... Sample PDF
Lean and Global Product Development in Auto Industry
Chapter 30
Debra D. Orosbullard
The business world is running at a faster pace than ever before. Globalization has partnered the world and new ways of doing business to meet... Sample PDF
Future Trends: Global Projects & Virtual Teaming
Chapter 31
Geoffrey Corb, Stephen Hellen
Social networking technologies—such as Wikis, blogs and instant messaging—are increasingly being employed in business settings to support... Sample PDF
Wiki-enabled Technology Management
Chapter 32
Owen G. McGrath
Higher education IT project managers have always relied on user activity data as logged in one form or another. Summarized counts of users and... Sample PDF
Mining User Activity Data In Higher Education Open Systems: Trends, Challenges, and Possibilities
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