Key Management for Dynamic Peer Groups in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Key Management for Dynamic Peer Groups in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Johann van der Merwe (University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) and Dawoud Dawoud (University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-715-7.ch012
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Abstract

Group communication in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) generally occurs in the form of dynamic peer groups (DPGs). This chapter reviews the existing group key management schemes for DPGs, found in conventional networks, with respect to their suitability for MANETs. The schemes are uniquely categorized based on their underlying key establishment mechanisms and group topologies. Each group is introduced by presenting the most promising scheme belonging to the subset. The discussions reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the existing schemes and identify the challenges in designing group key management schemes compatible with the unique characteristics of generic MANETs.
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Introduction

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) allow users to establish communication without any fixed or pre-existing infrastructure. The network therefore has no base stations, access points or remote servers. Nodes that are within each others transmission range communicate directly, while relaying the messages for those too far apart. The mobility of the nodes can lead to ‘rapidly changing’ (dynamic) network topologies. Nodes do not have any relationships prior to network formation due to the nature of the applications of MANETs (van der Merwe et al., 2007).

Generic MANETs are created solely by the end-users for a common purpose in an unplanned, i.e. ad hoc fashion. In contrast to conventional networks the users therefore cannot bootstrap the required security associations with the assistance of a priori shared information on their nodes. This unique property demands distributed collaborative protocols that enable nodes to establish security mechanisms without the assistance of a centralized online Trusted Third Party (TTP).

Many researchers have already proposed peer-to-peer key management schemes that are suitable for self-organized and authority-based MANETs (van der Merwe et al., 2007). In contrast, the available literature contains very few group key management schemes that are designed specifically for MANETs. Authors normally adapt group key management schemes for conventional networks to suite the unique characteristics of MANETs.

The military and commercial applications of MANETs incorporate many group-oriented applications (van der Merwe et al., 2007). The primary subdivision of group key management schemes emerges from the variety of different application dependent group settings that exist in practice. In Figure 1, the two main group key management settings are indicated within the dotted lines, namely:

Figure 1.

Dimensions of group key management

  • Group key management for centrally managed, non-collaborative groups

  • Group key management for dynamic peer groups (DPGs)

Large groups, found for example in internet multicast applications, are normally non-collaborative and hard to control on a peer basis (Steiner et al., 2000). They therefore have a structured hierarchy and exhibit one-to-many broadcast communication patterns (Steiner et al., 2000; Kim et al., 2004). The control structure is maintained by a centralized TTP, chosen prior to network formation.

DPGs tend to be relatively small collaborative groups (with membership in the order of a hundred) where all group participants have a symmetric relationship and must therefore be treated equally (Steiner et al., 2000). Such systems accordingly have no central point of control. This means that special roles, such as a group controller, are also not fixed prior to group formation, but allocated to any group member during and after group formation. These roles must be assigned based on group policy and must be orthogonal to the key management scheme (Steiner et al., 2000).

DPGs have many-to-many communication patterns and are dynamic in membership, i.e. members join and leave at random. Since a common cryptographic key must be shared between group members at all times, the dynamic membership makes key management protocol design complex as the computational and communication overhead on the network has to be kept to a minimum (Kim et al., 2004). Dynamic membership result in group key agreement protocol suites that accommodate initial key agreement (IKA) and auxiliary key agreement (AKA) operations (Steiner et al., 2000). IKA refers to the key agreement during the first group formation or group genesis, while AKA includes all subsequent key agreement operations. The most common AKA operations are illustrated in Figure 2 (Steiner et al., 2000).

Figure 2.

Common auxiliary key agreement operations

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgment
Boon-Chong Seet
Chapter 1
Raphaël Kummer, Peter Kropf, Pascal Felber
The most important characteristics of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) such as broadcast and multihop communication, limited resources (particularly... Sample PDF
P2P Information Lookup, Collection, and Distribution in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
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Chapter 2
Thomas Repantis, Vana Kalogeraki
In this chapter the authors study the problems of data dissemination and query routing in mobile peerto- peer networks. They provide a taxonomy and... Sample PDF
Data Dissemination and Query Routing in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks
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Chapter 3
Jie Feng, Lisong Xu, Byrav Ramamurthy
With the evolution of wireless technologies, mobile networks can provide much more interesting services and resources to users than before.... Sample PDF
Overlay Construction in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks
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Chapter 4
Thomas Kunz, Abdulbaset Gaddah, Li Li
Peer-to-Peer computing is a popular, relatively new, distributed computing paradigm. It allows for a flexible set of participants to coordinate... Sample PDF
Mobility Support in a P2P System for Publish/Subscribe Applications
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Chapter 5
Leonardo B. Oliveira, Isabela G. Siqueira, Daniel F. Macedo, José M. Nogueira, Antonio A.F. Loureiro
Both Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are decentralized self-organizing networks with a dynamic topology, used to... Sample PDF
P2P over MANETs: Application and Network Layers' Routing Assessment
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Chapter 6
Fotis Loukos, Helen Karatza
Mobile Peer-to-Peer networks are an emerging topic in networking. One of the major usages is the cooperation between peers. The aim of this chapter... Sample PDF
Enabling Cooperation in MANET-Based Peer-to-Peer Systems
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Chapter 7
Tobias Hoßfeld, Daniel Schlosser, Kurt Tutschku, Phuoc Tran-Gia
The performance of P2P content distribution in cellular networks depends highly on the cooperation and coordination of heterogeneous and often... Sample PDF
Cooperation Strategies for P2P Content Distribution in Cellular Mobile Networks: Considering Selfishness and Heterogeneity
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Chapter 8
Tobias Hoßfeld, Michael Duelli, Dirk Staehle, Phuoc Tran-Gia
The performance of P2P content distribution in cellular networks depends highly on the cooperation and coordination of heterogeneous and often... Sample PDF
Cooperation Strategies for P2P Content Distribution in Cellular Mobile Networks: Considering Mobility and Heterogeneity
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Chapter 9
Wei Wu, Kian-Lee Tan
Caching and prefetching are two effective ways for mobile peers to improve access latency in mobile environments. With short-range communication... Sample PDF
Peer-Based Collaborative Caching and Prefetching in Mobile Broadcast
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Chapter 10
Mark Kai-Ho Yeung, Yu-Kwong Kwok
The widespread deployment of competing wireless technologies has created new research opportunities. In particular, the authors consider media... Sample PDF
Wireless Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming: Incentives and Resource Management Issues
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Chapter 11
Panayotis Antoniadis
The goal of this chapter is to analyze the incentive issues that arise in multi-hop ad hoc networks when their nodes are potentially mobile devices... Sample PDF
Incentives for Resource Sharing in Ad Hoc Networks: Going Beyond Rationality
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Chapter 12
Johann van der Merwe, Dawoud Dawoud
Group communication in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) generally occurs in the form of dynamic peer groups (DPGs). This chapter reviews the existing... Sample PDF
Key Management for Dynamic Peer Groups in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
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Chapter 13
James Walkerdine, Peter Phillips, Simon Lock
The growth of mobile devices with near PC equivalent capabilities has brought with it the possibility of mobile Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems. However... Sample PDF
A Tool Supported Methodology for Developing Secure Mobile P2P Systems
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Chapter 14
Spyridon L. Tompros
Enabled by the emergence of high-speed Internet access in last mile communications, P2P systems have witnessed significant growth in the recent... Sample PDF
Integration and Interworking of Fixed and Mobile P2P Systems
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Chapter 15
Erkki Harjula, Jani Hautakorpi, Nicklas Beijar, Mika Ylianttila
Due to the increasing popularity of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) computing, the information technology industry and standardization organizations have started... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer SIP for Mobile Computing: Challenges and Solutions
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Chapter 16
Kurt Tutschku, Andreas Berl, Tobias Hossfeld, Hermann de Meer
The telecommunication industry has recently seen two areas with very high growth rates: cellular networks, for example, GSM (Global System for... Sample PDF
Mobile P2P in Cellular Mobile Networks: Architecture and Performance
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Chapter 17
Norihiro Ishikawa, Hiromitsu Sumino, Takeshi Kato, Johan Hjelm, Shingo Murakami, Kazuhiro Kitagawa, Nobuo Saito
Compared with traditional Internet technologies, peer-to-peer technologies has functions to realize resource discovery, resource sharing, and load... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer Networking Platform and Its Applications for Mobile Phones
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Chapter 18
Raphaël Kummer, Peter Kropf, Jean-Frédéric Wagen, Timothée Maret
Many innovative P2P algorithms designed for mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) have been designed to scale smoothly when handling a very large number... Sample PDF
Evaluation Platform for Large Scale P2P Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
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Chapter 19
Alf Inge Wang
This chapter presents the Peer2Me mobile peer-to-peer framework, Peer2Me applications, and discusses the experiences from using the Peer2Me... Sample PDF
Mobile Peer-to-Peer Collaborative Framework and Applications
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Chapter 20
Antônio Tadeu A. Gomes, Artur Ziviani, Luciana S. Lima, Markus Endler
This chapter surveys the approaches to service discovery that are relevant to mobile peer-to-peer systems in a variety of scenarios. More... Sample PDF
Service Discovery Approaches to Mobile Peer-to-Peer Computing
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Chapter 21
Marco Conti, Franca Delmastro, Andrea Passarella
Recently, the popularity of p2p computing paradigm has been increasing, especially in the mobile environments, due to the large use of mobile... Sample PDF
Context-Aware P2P Over Opportunistic Networks
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