The Knowledge Society Applications: The RRR Language Machines

The Knowledge Society Applications: The RRR Language Machines

Azamat Abdoullaev (EIS Encyclopedic Intelligent Systems Ltd, Cyprus)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-966-3.ch012
OnDemand PDF Download:
$37.50

Abstract

Like in the human mind marked by rationality, goals, and purposeful actions, knowledge in advanced computer systems and intelligent agents is thought to constitute a distinct level lying above the symbol (computational), the logical (algorithmic), and the physical (biological, mechanical) levels (Newell, 1980; Newell, 1990; Newell, 1993). The symbol or code level with its two kinds of representations, data structures (contents) and processes (codes and procedures), is considered to be a representational medium level realizing knowledge content and actuating the agent’s thoughts and decisions. Accordingly, all inquiries of AI usually are arranged as a separate contribution either to the symbol (code) level or to the knowledge (semantic) level. Any sort of logic, whatever may be its generality, contributes little directly to the knowledge level, since “no matter how general a logic is, it is not at the knowledge level” (Newell, 1980). Logical principles are by nature merely rules of reasoning, deductive arguments, and demonstration, they are not principles of real knowledge. So, being neutral to their subjects, formal logical systems neither describe nor represent, nor explain, nor predict any real phenomena. Consequently, nothing substantive can be deduced from the logical axioms or postulates regarding the nature and order of things in the real world. Nevertheless, despite the public fact that logic says nothing about any real thing, and that it is all about proposition and inference forms, there is an established habit to combine formal logic languages with entity taxonomies and typologies so that to construct a general representational language for the DA, in particular, and knowledge technologies, in general (Ontology and Taxonomies, 2001). Nowadays, such versions of logical formalisms and languages as semantic networks, rule systems, fuzzy logic, frame models, predicate calcuThe lus, or situation calculus still constitute all the thrust of current knowledge and reasoning applications. Some AI practitioners feel concern about this conceptual confusion, and urge on replacing “form-oriented AI research” with “content-directed AI Research,” whereby substituting knowledge engineering with ontological (domain knowledge) engineering, thus, underlining the higher value of content theories in comparison with so-called logical mechanism theories (Mizoguchi, 1998).

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Reset
Dedication
Table of Contents
Acknowledgment
Chapter 1
Azamat Abdoullaev
Today, computers anchored to electronic measuring devices, transducers, and telemetric systems are increasingly transforming into worldwide... Sample PDF
Introduction: Toward the Intelligent Civilization of Ontological Technology
$37.50
Chapter 2
Azamat Abdoullaev
As a general science of the universe dealing with the most universal truths about all existence, an account of what there is in the world and the... Sample PDF
Ways to View the World: A Standard Ontology as the Reality Framework and the World Code
$37.50
Chapter 3
Azamat Abdoullaev
Formalizing the world in rigorous mathematical terms is no less significant than its fundamental understanding and modeling in terms of ontological... Sample PDF
The World Code: Mathematical Ontology as the Real Road to Reality
$37.50
Chapter 4
Azamat Abdoullaev
The ultimate purpose of standard ontology is to describe and represent all the things in the world in comprehensive and consistent ways, whereby... Sample PDF
What Makes Reality: Ontological Classes and Rules
$37.50
Chapter 5
Azamat Abdoullaev
To model reality by mapping its content to computable forms, we need to know how to represent the first-class entities of any existence... Sample PDF
What Orders Reality: Relationship, Relatives, and Relations
$37.50
Chapter 6
Azamat Abdoullaev
Relationship as a primary constituent of reality setting a mutual order of things in the world commonly involves a large number of the terms or... Sample PDF
What Organizes the World: N-Relational Entities
$37.50
Chapter 7
Azamat Abdoullaev
The world or reality is the totality of things diversified into a multitude of collections of subworlds with the characteristic constraints and... Sample PDF
What Determines the World: Causality as the Life-or-Death Relationship
$37.50
Chapter 8
Azamat Abdoullaev
Along with substances of all kinds, states of all manner, and changes of all types and exemplifications, relationships of all sorts and instances... Sample PDF
How to Reason about the World: The Common Reasoning Platform
$37.50
Chapter 9
Azamat Abdoullaev
How reality or the world with its parts and levels might be truly symbolized and represented by emerging semantic technology and knowledge systems... Sample PDF
How the World is Signified: Real World Semantics, or What Meaning Relation is
$37.50
Chapter 10
Azamat Abdoullaev
As far as human knowledge about the world is commonly given in NL expressions and as far as universal ontology is a general science of the world... Sample PDF
How to Represent the World: Ontology-Controlled Natural Languages
$37.50
Chapter 11
Azamat Abdoullaev
Of all possible intelligent NL applications and semantic artifacts, a special value is today ascribed to building the question answering systems... Sample PDF
Natural Language Intelligences: The Virtual or Digital Aristotle
$37.50
Chapter 12
Azamat Abdoullaev
Like in the human mind marked by rationality, goals, and purposeful actions, knowledge in advanced computer systems and intelligent agents is... Sample PDF
The Knowledge Society Applications: The RRR Language Machines
$37.50
Chapter 13
Azamat Abdoullaev
The urgent necessity of a true knowledge society is mainly caused by the fact that the natural unity of world knowledge is badly destroyed by the... Sample PDF
Reality Classification System: A Product Line of the EIS UFO
$37.50
About the Author