Since the beginning of the 1980s, a movement was fomented by academics and executives to use information and communication technology (ICT) not only as a tool for processing data more rapidly, but also as a powerful strategic weapon. The need to use ICT as an enabler for reformulating old processes, rather than simply automating existing practices, was perceived by these academics and executives (see, for instance, Davenport & Short, 1990; Venkatraman, 1994).
Key Terms in this Chapter
Metadata: Structured, encoded data that describe characteristics of information-bearing entities to aid in the identification, discovery, assessment, and management of the described entities.
E-Government: The various ways government uses information and communication technologies to remain relevant in the knowledge society.
Inter-Organisational Systems (IOS): Automated information systems shared by two or more organisations.
G2G (Government-to-Government): The digital-enabled collaboration and cooperation perspective among distinct government agencies.
Metabusiness: A quasi-firm created through digital links among several companies, in such a way that it is almost impossible to know exactly its boundaries.
Virtual private network (VPN): A private communications network usually used within a company, or by several different companies or organizations, to communicate over a public network.
Knowledge Management: Techniques and tools for collecting, managing and disseminating knowledge within an organisation.
XML: A recommended general-purpose markup language for creating special-purpose markup languages, capable of describing many different kinds of data.
SOAP: A protocol for exchanging XML-based messages over a computer network.
UDDI: An open industry initiative enabling businesses to publish service listings and discover each other and define how the services or software applications interact over the Internet.