The design of learning is probably more accurately described as the design of learning activities as it is the activities that are designable compared to learning which is the desired outcome of the activities. While the term “instruction” may be out of favor with some commentators, as it implies a teacher-directed approach, “instructional design” has been used for some years to describe the design of the things learners and teachers or trainers do to facilitate learning.
Key Terms in this Chapter
Instructional Design: The process of is concerned with the planning, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of instructional activities or events and the purpose of the discipline is to build knowledge about the steps for the development of instruction.
Learning: An umbrella term to include training, development, and education, where training is learning that pertains to the job, development is learning for the growth of the individual that is not related to a specific job, and education is learning to prepare the individual but not related to a specific job.
Flexible Learning: An approach to learning in which the time, place, and pace of learning may be determined by learners. In this chapter this term is used to include the approaches taken by distance learning and open learning.
Human Resource Development: Intentional learning in organizations. Can include training and development.
Representational Technology: A one-way technology that supports interaction with the material.
Learning Activities: The things learners and facilitators do, within learning events, that are intended to bring about the desired learning outcomes.
Distance Learning (aka Distance Education): Education in which learners are separated from facilitators.
Education: A structured program of intentional learning from an institution.
Interaction: Reciprocal between humans and between a human and an object including a computer or other electronic device that allows a two-way flow of information between it and a user responding immediately to the latter’s input.
Learning Management System (aka Virtual Learning Environment, Course Management System and Managed learning Environment): A Web-based system for the implementation, assessment, and tracking of learners through learning events.
Categorization: Grouping according to according to the role played.
Learning Technologies: Technologies that are used in the process of learning to provide material to learners, to allow learners to interact with it, and/or to host collaborations between learners and between learners and facilitators.
Online Learning: Flexible or distance learning containing a component that is accessed via the World Wide Web.
Facilitator (aka facilitator of learning): The person who has prime responsibility for the facilitation of the learning; rather than terms such as “teacher,” “trainer,” or “developer.”
Learning Event: A session of structured learning such as classes, subjects, courses, and training programs.
Higher Education: Intentional learning in universities and colleges.