Learning Objects and Generative Learning for Higher Order Thinking

Learning Objects and Generative Learning for Higher Order Thinking

Tan Wee Chuen (Centre for Innovative in Teaching & Learning Southern College, Malaysia), Baharuddin Aris (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia) and Mohd Salleh Abu (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-861-1.ch034
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This chapter aims to guide the readers through the design and development of a prototype Web-based learning system based on the integration of learning objects with the principles of generative learning to improve higher order thinking skills. The chapter describes the conceptual model called Generative Learning Object Organizer and Thinking Tasks (GLOOTT) which was used to design and build a technology- supported learning environment. The chapter then describes how the effectiveness of the Web-based learning system was evaluated and reflects on the importance of the findings more generally.
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The emergence of the World Wide Web has caused change and innovation in the way people learn and work. An educational innovation is gradually taking place in the development and delivery of instruction through the use of learning objects. The changes provide an opportunity to improve the learning with the appropriate use of pedagogy coupled with technologies.

Most instructional designers understand the importance of pedagogical perspectives in the design and development of Web learning environments. Snow (1989) noted that instruction differs in structure and completeness, and highly structured instruction (linear in sequence with restricted and high external control) seems to help learners with low ability but hinder those with high ability. This suggests that the concept of one-size-fits-all design is not suitable in the design and development in e-learning. Instead, the learning environment should be highly flexible in structure and transfer the control of the learning system from the instructors to the learners whereby learners can actively participate in the learning process. The concept of learning object design fits this goal very well as can provide flexible paths for the learners’ exploration. Nonlinearity in the learning object approach allows students to access information in different patterns and to take control in their own actions and learning.

Learning object has been described by Wiley (2000) as reusable digital resource that supports learning. Grounded in the object-oriented paradigm of computer science, learning objects require the design of instruction into small learning contents that can be reused in different contexts, deployed into multiple setting and learning goals (Collis & Strijker, 2003; Wiley, 2000).

The idea of packaging information in small, reusable, and flexible units in a learning environment has received a lot of attention from the educators and instructional designers of e-learning environments. According to Reigeluth and Nelson (1997), when teachers first gain access to instructional materials, they often break the materials down into their constituting parts and then reassemble these parts in ways that support their instructional goals. Thus, the notion of small and reusable units of learning content, learning components, and learning object design have the potential to provide flexibility and reusability by simplifying the assembly and disassembly of instructional design and development.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Thinking Tasks: Thinking tasks in this chapter are the scenario-based problems that involve learners with HOTS. Thinking tasks aim to test their understandings as well as to reinforce and practice HOTS as mentioned by Costa and Kallick (2001). There are two parts in thinking tasks, namely Try It Out and Apply It. Try It Out contains multiple-choice questions uploaded by the instructor to assess the students’ understanding. Apply It consists of scenario-based problems that engage learners with HOTS.

Learning Object: A learning object is a self-contained, flexible, and reusable chunk of instruction that can be assembled with other objects to facilitate the learning.

Lesson Mapping: Lesson mapping is the concept mapping in GOOD learning system. It is the generative learning activity designed in the Web-based learning system that aims to engage students in HOTS. It is an outline form of concept map suggested by Alpert and Grueneberg (2000) and Dabbagh (2001).

GLOOTT Model: GLOOTT refers to Generative Learning Object and Thinking Tasks. It is a pedagogically-enriched conceptual model that consists of learning object, generative learning, and HOTS.

Generative Learning: Generative learning is a type of instruction developed by constructivists. The generative learning activities involve the creation of relationships and meanings of the learning. In the generative learning, students are active in the knowledge construction. Experts and researchers advocate that concept mapping and problem solving are activities of generative learning. Concept mapping and problem solving will engage students in analysis, synthesis, and evaluation skills. Thus, it is important to integrate these skills into learning in order to promote HOTS. In the generative learning environment, students are active in constructing meaningful understanding of information found and generating relationships among the information.

HOTS: HOTS is the abbreviation of Higher Order Thinking Skills. The cognitive operations of HOTS are Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation (Bloom et al., 1956; Bloom et al., 1971). Table 4 describes the features of the Bloom Taxonomy of Thinking used in this research (Bloom et al., 1956).

Reflection Corner: According to Fogarty (2002), reflective thinking is the foundation of HOTS. Students are self-aware and they plan, monitor, and evaluate their thinking and learning when they engage in reflective thinking. Thus, Reflection Corner acts as a self-assessment tool to help the learners in monitoring their engagement with HOTS and reflecting their learning. It consists of a checklist, called “How am I doing” checklist to enable learners to reflect their engagement with HOTS.

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Tom Carey
Lori Lockyer, Sue Bennett, Shirley Agostinho, Barry Harper
Lori Lockyer, Sue Bennett, Shirley Agostinho, Barry Harper
Chapter 1
Shirley Agostinho
The term “learning design” is gaining momentum in the e-learning literature as a concept for supporting academics to model and share teaching... Sample PDF
Learning Design Representations to Document, Model, and Share Teaching Practice
Chapter 2
Isobel Falconer, Allison Littlejohn
Practice models are generic approaches to the structuring and orchestration of learning activities for pedagogic purposes, intended to promote... Sample PDF
Representing Models of Practice
Chapter 3
Rob Koper, Yongwu Miao
IMS learning design (IMSLD) is an open standard that can be used to specify a wide range of pedagogical strategies in computer-interpretable models.... Sample PDF
Using the IMS LD Standard to Describe Learning Designs
Chapter 4
David Griffiths, Oleg Liber
The IMS LD specification is internally complex and has been used in a number of different ways. As a result users who have a basic understanding of... Sample PDF
Opportunities, Achievements, and Prospects for Use of IMS LD
Chapter 5
Franca Garzotto, Symeon Retalis
“A design pattern describes a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that... Sample PDF
A Critical Perspective on Design Patterns for E-Learning
Chapter 6
Sherri S. Frizell, Roland Hübscher
Design patterns have received considerable attention for their potential as a means of capturing and sharing design knowledge. This chapter provides... Sample PDF
Using Design Patterns to Support E-Learning Design
Chapter 7
Peter Goodyear, Dai Fei Yang
This chapter provides an overview of recent research and development (R&D) activity in the area of educational design patterns and pattern... Sample PDF
Patterns and Pattern Languages in Educational Design
Chapter 8
Gráinne Conole
The chapter provides a theoretical framework for understanding learning activities, centering on two key aspects: (1) the capture and representation... Sample PDF
The Role of Mediating Artefacts in Learning Design
Chapter 9
Elizabeth Masterman
This chapter uses activity theory to construct a framework for the design and deployment of pedagogic planning tools. It starts by noting the impact... Sample PDF
Activity Theory and the Design of Pedagogic Planning Tools
Chapter 10
Barry Harper, Ron Oliver
This chapter describes the development of a taxonomy of learning designs based on a survey of 52 innovative ICT-using projects that formed the basis... Sample PDF
Developing a Taxonomy for Learning Designs
Chapter 11
Carmel McNaught, Paul Lam, Kin-Fai Cheng
The chapter will describe an expert review process used at The Chinese University of Hong Kong. The mechanism used involves a carefully developed... Sample PDF
Using Expert Reviews to Enhance Learning Designs
Chapter 12
Matthew Kearney, Anne Prescott, Kirsty Young
This chapter reports on findings from a recent project situated in the area of preservice teacher education. The project investigated prospective... Sample PDF
Investigating Prospective Teachers as Learning Design Authors
Chapter 13
Paul Hazlewood, Amanda Oddie, Mark Barrett-Baxendale
IMS Learning Design (IMS LD) is a specification for describing a range of pedagogic approaches. It allows the linking of pedagogical structure... Sample PDF
Using IMS Learning Design in Educational Situations
Chapter 14
Robert McLaughlan, Denise Kirkpatrick
Decision-making processes in relation to complex natural resources require recognition and accommodation of diverse and competing perspectives in a... Sample PDF
Online Role-Based Learning Designs for Teaching Complex Decision Making
Chapter 15
Garry Hoban
Digital animations are complex to create and are usually made by experts for novices to download from Web sites or copy from DVDs and CDs to use as... Sample PDF
Facilitating Learner-Generated Animations with Slowmation
Chapter 16
Yongwu Miao, Daniel Burgos, David Griffiths, Rob Koper
Group interaction has to be meticulously designed to foster effective and efficient collaborative learning. The IMS Learning Design specification... Sample PDF
Representation of Coordination Mechanisms in IMS LD
Chapter 17
Johannes Strobel, Gretchen Lowerison, Roger Côté, Philip C. Abrami, Edward C. Bethel
In this chapter, we describe the process of modeling different theory-, research-, and best-practicebased learning designs into IMS-LD, a... Sample PDF
Modeling Learning Units by Capturing Context with IMS LD
Chapter 18
Daniel Burgos, Hans G.K. Hummel, Colin Tattersall, Francis Brouns, Rob Koper
This chapter presents some design guidelines for collaboration and participation in blended learning networks. As an exemplary network, we describe... Sample PDF
Design Guidelines for Collaboration and Participation with Examples from the LN4LD (Learning Network for Learning Design)
Chapter 19
Tom Boyle
This chapter argues that good design has to be at the heart of developing effective learning objects. It briefly outlines the “knowledge... Sample PDF
The Design of Learning Objects for Pedagogical Impact
Chapter 20
Margaret Turner
This chapter introduces an approach to writing content for online learning over networked media. It argues that few resources currently utilise the... Sample PDF
Visual Meaning Management for Networked Learning
Chapter 21
Christina Gitsaki
Due to the increasingly diverse student population in multicultural nations such as Australia, the U.S., Canada, and the UK, educators are faced... Sample PDF
Modification of Learning Objects for NESB Students
Chapter 22
Daniel Churchill, John Gordon Hedberg
The main idea behind learning objects is that they are to exist as digital resources separated from the learning task in which they are used. This... Sample PDF
Learning Objects, Learning Tasks, and Handhelds
Chapter 23
Peter Freebody, Sandy Muspratt, David McRae
The question addressed in this chapter is: What is the evidence for the effects of online programs of learning objects on motivation and learning?... Sample PDF
Technology, Curriculum, and Pedagogy in the Evaluation of an Online Content Program in Australasia
Chapter 24
David Lake, Kate Lowe, Rob Phillips, Rick Cummings, Renato Schibeci
This chapter provides a model to analyse the effectiveness and efficiency of Learning Objects being used in primary and secondary schools by... Sample PDF
Effective Use of Learning Objects in Class Environments
Chapter 25
Robert McCormick, Tomi Jaakkola, Sami Nurmi
Most studies on reusable digital learning materials, Learning Objects (LOs), relate to their use in universities. Few empirical studies exist to... Sample PDF
A European Evaluation of the Promises of LOs
Chapter 26
Tomi Jaakkola, Sami Nurmi
There has been a clear lack of rigorous empirical evidence on the effectiveness of learning objects (LOs) in education. This chapter reports the... Sample PDF
Instructional Effectiveness of Learning Objects
Chapter 27
Robert McCormick
This chapter will examine the approach taken in the evaluation of a large-scale feasibility trial of the production, distribution, and use of... Sample PDF
Evaluating Large-Scale European LO Production, Distribution, and Use
Chapter 28
John C Nesbit, Tracey L. Leacock
The Learning Object Review Instrument (LORI) is an evaluation framework designed to support collaborative critique of multimedia learning resources.... Sample PDF
Collaborative Argumentation in Learning Resource Evaluation
Chapter 29
Philippe Martin, Michel Eboueya
This chapter first argues that current approaches for sharing and retrieving learning objects or any other kinds of information are not efficient or... Sample PDF
For the Ultimate Accessibility and Reusability
Chapter 30
Sue Bennett, Dominique Parrish, Geraldine Lefoe, Meg O’Reilly, Mike Keppell, Robyn Philip
As the notion of learning objects has grown in popularity, so too has interest in how they should be stored to promote access and reusability. A key... Sample PDF
A Needs Analysis Framework for the Design of Digital Repositories in Higher Education
Chapter 31
William Bramble, Mariya Pachman
Reusable learning objects (LOs) constitute a promising approach to the development of easily accessible, technologically sound, and curriculum... Sample PDF
Costs and Sustainability of Learning Object Repositories
Chapter 32
Kristine Elliott, Kevin Sweeney, Helen Irving
This chapter reports the authors’ experiences of developing a learning design to teach scientific inquiry, of integrating the learning design with... Sample PDF
A Learning Design to Teach Scientific Inquiry
Chapter 33
Lisa Lobry de Bruyn
This chapter explores through a case study approach of a tertiary-level unit on Land Assessment for Sustainable Use, the connections between three... Sample PDF
Adapting Problem-Based Learning to an Online Learning Environment
Chapter 34
Tan Wee Chuen, Baharuddin Aris, Mohd Salleh Abu
This chapter aims to guide the readers through the design and development of a prototype Web-based learning system based on the integration of... Sample PDF
Learning Objects and Generative Learning for Higher Order Thinking
Chapter 35
Sebastian Foti
The author describes the work of Dr. Mary Budd Rowe and the establishment of an early learning object databases. Extensive training with K-12... Sample PDF
Applying Learning Object Libraries in K-12 Settings
Chapter 36
L. K. Curda, Melissa A. Kelly
We present guidelines for designing and developing a repository for the storage and exchange of instructional resources, as well as considerations... Sample PDF
Guidelines for Developing Learning Object Repositories
Chapter 37
Sandra Wills, Anne McDougall
This study tracks the uptake of online role play in Australia from 1990 to 2006 and the affordances to its uptake. It examines reusability, as one... Sample PDF
Reusability of Online Role Play as Learning Objects or Learning Designs
Chapter 38
Lori Lockyer, Lisa Kosta, Sue Bennett
Health professional education is changing to meet the demands of a limited workforce and a focus on community-based clinical training. The change... Sample PDF
An Analysis of Learning Designs that Integrate Patient Cases in Health Professions Education
Chapter 39
Mohan Chinnappan
The shift in the way we visualise the nature of mathematics and mathematics learning has presented educational technologists with new challenges in... Sample PDF
Reconceptualisation of Learning Objects as Meta-Schemas
Chapter 40
Henk Huijser
This chapter provides an in depth discussion of the issues involved in integrating learning design and learning objects into generic Web sites. It... Sample PDF
Designing Learning Objects for Generic Web Sites
Chapter 41
Morag Munro, Claire Kenny
E-learning standards are a contentious topic amongst educators, designers, and researchers engaged in the development of learning objects and... Sample PDF
Standards for Learning Objects and Learning Designs
Chapter 42
Eddy Boot, Luca Botturi, Andrew S. Gibbons, Todd Stubbs
In developing modern instructional software, learning designs are used to formalize descriptions of roles, activities, constraints, and several... Sample PDF
Supporting Decision Making in Using Design Languages for Learning Designs and Learning Objects
Chapter 43
Gilbert Paquette, Olga Mariño, Karin Lundgren-Cayrol, Michel Léonard
This chapter summarizes the work on instructional engineering and educational modeling accomplished since 1992 at the LICEF Research Center of... Sample PDF
Principled Construction and Reuse of Learning Designs
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