This entry is a brief survey of the learning-theory field as it relates to educational technology, primarily focused on behavioral and constructivist educational theorists. According to some scholars, both have praised technology and perhaps exaggerated its promise (Berg, 2002; Duffy & Jonassen, 1994). Some point out that computers may finally provide the means by which the very labor-intensive education philosophy of Dewey may be put into practice. On the other side, behaviorists have long held a dominant position in the field of computer-based training (CBT) with the tireless repetition and utilization of clear behavioral learning objectives, key elements of these training programs. In more recent times, those interested in concept mapping, the value of learning computer programming, and simulations have all to some degree based their approaches on behaviorism or constructivism.