This chapter examines the literature of healthcare in the United States during the transitioning to electronic records. Key government legislation, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH), which were part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and the Affordable Health Care Act, are reviewed. The review concentrates on patient privacy issues, how they have been addressed in these acts, and what recommendations for improvement have been found in the literature. A comparison of the adoption of electronic health records on a nationwide scale in three countries is included. England, Australia, and the United States are all embarking in and are at different stages of implementing nationwide electronic health database systems. The resources used in locating relevant literature were PubMed, Medline, Highwire Press, State Library of Pennsylvania, and Google Scholar databases.