Let's Meander Through a Measured Space

Let's Meander Through a Measured Space

Jon Kerridge (Napier University, UK)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-020-2.ch002
OnDemand PDF Download:
$37.50

Abstract

This chapter concerns the question of how people navigate through a space in which other people are also present. Issues addressed include how the space itself affects the way people navigate, how this is changed by the presence of others in the space on a collective or individual basis, and how navigational abilities and behaviour can be measured. Such measurements can then be used, for example, to identify aberrant behaviour in public spaces. The state-of-the-art and current challenges in this domain are discussed. A new empirical approach to the tracking of pedestrians who are navigating populated spaces is then described, and its verification, validation, and further extension discussed.
Chapter Preview
Top

Introduction

Regardless of our ability, most of us have had to navigate through a space in which other people are also present. For most, this is simply achieved by walking through the space. For others, with some form of movement disability, this may be achieved with the help of others, who may undertake the navigation. Thus, we can argue that the vast majority of people have had some experience of navigating a space. This then leads to the simple question; how do we navigate through a space? In attempting an answer, we actually find ourselves posing yet further, more complex questions.

  • How does the space affect the way people navigate?

  • How do other people in a space change the way they individually and collectively navigate a space?

  • How do individuals and groups mitigate the effect of others in a space?

  • Finally, perhaps most importantly, can our learnt navigational ability be measured in some way so we can better understand the mechanisms involved in navigating a space and if so, will it help us answer the preceding questions? If we are able to undertake this measurement then perhaps we might be able to design better spaces.

The underlying premise is that navigational skill is a learnt capability, developed over many years from our initial faltering steps as a toddler, through childhood and into adulthood. We can also reflect that even parents have to develop new navigational skills as they seek a path through a space that is more appropriate for any child for whom they are responsible, especially if that child is in pram or buggy.

Top

What Can Be Measured?

We have to be realistic as to what can be measured, and not attempt to measure aspects that are innate to an individual. Thus, we can measure instantaneous speed and average speed over some observed path, but we cannot measure the speed at which a person would like to walk. We can measure the distance at which a person deviates from a given path to avoid another stationary or moving obstruction to their progress, but not the distance at which they become aware of the obstruction. We cannot measure a person’s desired personal space, but we can measure the gap they keep to anybody they are following, also known as their headway. We can also measure the distance between the shoulders of two people either as one overtakes the other or when they are moving towards each other. When avoiding an obstruction, we can see if a person deviates to the left or right, but we cannot measure their propensity to move to the left or right when avoiding an obstruction. We could measure acceleration but is that critical, given that most people appear to be able to go from rest to a normal walking speed or vice-versa in one step. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of measurement is to ensure the process itself does not perturb the space in any way. If it does, then the measurements themselves will be unrepresentative, and it will be very difficult to obtain any valid results and then infer any conclusions from the measurements. The aim of the measurement process should be to determine the distribution of each possible measurement across the population and to understand how these distributions vary with different types of people and space.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Reset
Table of Contents
Acknowledgment
Chapter 1
Alan Dix
Map, mazes, myths, magic, and mathematics, computation, cognition, community, and the constructed environment, all reveal something of our internal... Sample PDF
Paths and Patches: Patterns of Geognosy and Gnosis
$37.50
Chapter 2
Jon Kerridge
This chapter concerns the question of how people navigate through a space in which other people are also present. Issues addressed include how the... Sample PDF
Let's Meander Through a Measured Space
$37.50
Chapter 3
Matthew Leach
The Speckled Computing project is a large multisite research project based in Scotland, UK. The aim of the project is to investigate, prototype, and... Sample PDF
Navigating a Speckled World: Interacting with Wireless Sensor Networks
$37.50
Chapter 4
John Willy Bakke
Workplaces are key loci for expressing and studying organizational identity, even in distributed work. In organization studies, there is a growing... Sample PDF
Contested Terrain: Place, Work, and Organizational Identities
$37.50
Chapter 5
Anne Sofie Laegran
The chapter is based on a study of Internet cafés in Norway, and interrogates the way space and place is produced in interconnections between people... Sample PDF
Technosocial Space: Connecting People and Places
$37.50
Chapter 6
Lynne Hall
This chapter discusses artists’ use of virtual space to collaboratively create a digital stained-glass rose window. It explores the use of virtual... Sample PDF
Reconfiguring the Rose: An Exploration of the Use of Virtual Space by Artists Collaboratively Creating Digital Stained Glass
$37.50
Chapter 7
Elin K. Jacob
In distinguishing between space and place, one approach is to contrast the physicality of space with the sociality of place: space directs attention... Sample PDF
Context, Boundedness, and Structure: The Apprehension of Place in the Development of Information Environments
$37.50
Chapter 8
Richard Coyne
The widespread use of mobile telephony prompts a reevaluation of the role of the aural sense in spatial understanding. There are clear correlations... Sample PDF
Voice and Space: Agency of the Acousmêtre in Spatial Design
$37.50
Chapter 9
Susan Turner
This chapter considers the role of sound, and more specifically, listening, in creating a sense of presence (of “being there”) in “places” recreated... Sample PDF
Listening, Corporeality, Place and Presence
$37.50
Chapter 10
Stephen Boyd Davis
The chapter is concerned with the relationship between the planar space of graphic representations and the world space that they represent. To... Sample PDF
Representing Space: The Pictorial Imperative
$37.50
Chapter 11
Fiona Carroll
The art of the visual-narrative is not a new phenomenon. Artists and designers have been using images to tell stories for thousands of years. From... Sample PDF
The Spatial Development of the Visual-Narrative from Prehistoric Cave Paintings to Computer Games
$37.50
Chapter 12
Shaleph O’Neill
The Situationists defined the increasingly spectacularized society (The Society of the Spectacle ) as the alienation of the individual by an... Sample PDF
The Interactive Spectacle and the Digital Situationist
$37.50
Chapter 13
Shaun Lawson
People use spatial language in everyday face-to-face conversation, and we also now use such language during everyday computer-mediated interactions.... Sample PDF
Spatial Language in Computer Mediated Communication
$37.50
Chapter 14
Phil Turner
Recent years have witnessed a number of initiatives to develop technology (“memory prosthetics”) to enhance and extend human memory. Typical of... Sample PDF
Space, Place, and Memory Prosthetics
$37.50
Chapter 15
Julian Warner
This chapter is concerned with exposing the material basis for the concepts of the syntagm and paradigm from linguistics, and the message and... Sample PDF
Materializing Communication Concepts: Linearity and Surface in Linguistics and Information Theory
$37.50
Chapter 16
Sándor Darányi, Péter Wittek
Current methods of automatic indexing, automatic classification, and information retrieval treat index and query terms, that is, vocabulary units in... Sample PDF
On Information, Meaning, Space and Geometry
$37.50
About the Contributors