Localization Algorithms and Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks: Monitoring and Surveillance Techniques for Target Tracking

Localization Algorithms and Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks: Monitoring and Surveillance Techniques for Target Tracking

Ferit Ozan Akgul (Worcester Polytechnic Institute, USA), Mohammad Heidari (Worcester Polytechnic Institute, USA), Nayef Alsindi (Worcester Polytechnic Institute, USA) and Kaveh Pahlavan (Worcester Polytechnic Institute, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-396-8.ch003
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Abstract

This chapter discusses localization in WSNs specifically focusing on the physical limitations imposed by the wireless channel. Location awareness and different methods for localization are discussed. Particular attention is given to indoor TOA based ranging and positioning systems. Various aspects of WSN localization are addressed and performance results for cooperative schemes are presented.
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Introduction

Wireless sensor networks are ideal candidates for data gathering and remote sensing purposes in various environments, where the communications between the sensors mostly take place in a distributed manner (Akyildiz et al., 2002). Data obtained by individual sensors are relayed to a central station for further processing and logging. Usually, information obtained through a sensor needs to be associated with the location of each sensor which necessitates the localization of sensors within certain accuracy (Patwari et al., 2005). Since primary purpose of sensor networks is to gather information on environmental changes such as temperature, pressure or humidity, it is almost always required to determine the coordinates of a specific sensor so that the appropriate steps can be taken in a more effective way in the case of emergencies. As a matter of fact, about 13.3% of the recent scientific WSN publications focus on target tracking and localization aspects as mentioned by Sohraby et al. (2007).

Owing to their small form factor and low-power consumption, WSNs have found numerous applications in both civil and military use. In the civil domain, applications can be further divided into various categories like environmental, health related, commercial and public safety applications. Environmental applications may include fire/flood detection/prevention (Pathan et al., 2006), crop quality detection, field surveying; health related applications may be listed as patient/doctor/instrument tracking inside hospitals, elderly care and remote monitoring of biological data (Cypher et al., 2006); commercial applications might be inventory control, product tracking in warehouses (Rohrig & Spieker, 2008) and remote product quality assessment. For military applications, the use of WSNs is also important in rough terrain conditions where a centralized communication system may be too costly to build (Merrill et al., 2003). Soldier and mine tracking, as well as intelligence gathering can be some applications in this domain.

As it can be seen from a sample of applications in each field, location and tracking capability is an important aspect of WSNs that need to be considered and developed further. A number of researchers studied positioning using sensor nodes and investigated the performance of algorithms and presented theoretical bounds in WSNs (Bulusu et al., 2000; Niculescu et al., 2001; Savarese et al., 2001; Savvides et al., 2001; Doherty et al., 2001; Chang & Sahai, 2004; Kanaan et al., (2006a, 2006c)). The positioning capability can be implemented using different sensing technologies like ultrasonic waves as in the Active Bat system proposed by Ward et al. (1997) or using RF or both as in the Cricket system (Priyantha et al., 2000). By using sound waves, researchers have been able to obtain cm. accuracy; however, these systems are only suitable for very small areas like a single office environment and are not intended for outdoor or indoor/outdoor hybrid node localization. In the latter case, RF solutions are generally preferred since quick deployment is possible and hardware and various ranging/localization algorithms that can be directly applied are widely available. Nevertheless, due to the nature of RF propagation, ranging/localization accuracy is not on par with solutions using sound waves. Later in this chapter we will cover the basics of RF channel and how it affects the performance of localization in various environments.

Figure 1, shows a typical setup for a WSN with location capability. Here, the sensor nodes are able to communicate with each other as well as pre-deployed anchor nodes whose coordinates are known in advance. At this point, it might be appropriate to present the two methods of WSN localization. Sensor node localization can take place in a centralized or a distributed manner.

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List of Reviewers
Table of Contents
Preface
Guoqiang Mao, Baris Fidan
Acknowledgment
Guoqiang Mao, Baris Fidan
Chapter 1
Guoqiang Mao, Baris Fidan
Localization is an important aspect in the field of wireless sensor networks that has attracted significant research interest recently. The interest... Sample PDF
Introduction to Wireless Sensor Network Localization
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Chapter 2
Fredrik Gustafsson, Fredrik Gunnarsson
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) localization relies on measurements. Availability of, and the information content in, these measurements depend on... Sample PDF
Measurements Used in Wireless Sensor Networks Localization
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Chapter 3
Ferit Ozan Akgul, Mohammad Heidari, Nayef Alsindi, Kaveh Pahlavan
This chapter discusses localization in WSNs specifically focusing on the physical limitations imposed by the wireless channel. Location awareness... Sample PDF
Localization Algorithms and Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks: Monitoring and Surveillance Techniques for Target Tracking
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Chapter 4
Steven Lanzisera, Kristofer S.J. Pister
Localization or geolocation of wireless sensors usually requires accurate estimates of the distance between nodes in the network. RF ranging... Sample PDF
RF Ranging Methods and Performance Limits for Sensor Localization
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Chapter 5
Neal Patwari, Piyush Agrawal
A number of practical issues are involved in the use of measured received signal strength (RSS) for purposes of localization. This chapter focuses... Sample PDF
Calibration and Measurement of Signal Strength for Sensor Localization
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Chapter 6
Bill Jackson, Tibor Jordán
In the network localization problem the goal is to determine the location of all nodes by using only partial information on the pairwise distances... Sample PDF
Graph Theoretic Techniques in the Analysis of Uniquely Localizable Sensor Networks
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Chapter 7
Jia Fang, Dominique Duncan, A. Stephen Morse
The sensor network localization problem with distance information is to determine the positions of all sensors in a network given the positions of... Sample PDF
Sequential Localization with Inaccurate Measurements
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Chapter 8
MDS-Based Localization  (pages 198-229)
Ahmed A. Ahmed, Xiaoli Li, Yi Shang, Hongchi Shi
The authors present several network node localization methods that are based on multidimensional scaling (MDS) techniques. Four algorithms are... Sample PDF
MDS-Based Localization
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Chapter 9
Saikat Ray, Wei Lai, Dong Guo, Ioannis Ch. Paschalidis
The authors present a unified stochastic localization approach that allows a wireless sensor network to determine the physical locations of its... Sample PDF
Statistical Location Detection
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Chapter 10
A. S. Krishnakumar, P. Krishnan
In this chapter, the authors concentrate on signal strength-based localization in indoor wireless networks, with emphasis on 802.11 networks. The... Sample PDF
Theory and Practice of Signal Strength-Based Localization in Indoor Environments
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Chapter 11
Eiman Elnahrawy, Richard P. Martin
This chapter discusses radio-based positioning. It surveys and compares several received signal strength localization approaches from two broad... Sample PDF
Theory and Practice of Signal Strength-Based Localization in Indoor Environments
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Chapter 12
Duc A. Tran, XuanLong Nguyen, Thinh Nguyen
A vast majority of localization techniques proposed for sensor networks are based on triangulation methods in Euclidean geometry. They utilize the... Sample PDF
Machine Learning Based Localization
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Chapter 13
Moshe Laifenfeld, Ari Trachtenberg, David Starobinski
Various real-life environments are exceptionally harsh for signal propagation, rendering well-known trilateration techniques (e.g. GPS) unsuitable... Sample PDF
Robust Localization Using Identifying Codes
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Chapter 14
Michael Allen, Sebnem Baydere, Elena Gaura, Gurhan Kucuk
This chapter introduces a methodological approach to the evaluation of localization algorithms. The chapter contains a discussion of evaluation... Sample PDF
Evaluation of Localization Algorithms
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Chapter 15
Michael L. McGuire, Konstantinos N. Plataniotis
Node localization is an important issue for wireless sensor networks to provide context for collected sensory data. Sensor network designers need to... Sample PDF
Accuracy Bounds for Wireless Localization Methods
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Chapter 16
Junaid Ansari, Janne Riihijärvi, Petri Mähönen
The authors discuss algorithms and solutions for signal processing and filtering for localization and tracking applications in Wireless Sensor... Sample PDF
Experiences in Data Processing and Bayesian Filtering Applied to Localization and Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks
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Chapter 17
Mohamed EL-Darieby, Hazem Ahmed, Mahmoud Halfawy, Ahmed Amer, Baher Abdulhai
Large urban areas in North America as well as many other parts of the world are experiencing unprecedented and soaring congestion problems. It is... Sample PDF
A Wireless Mesh Network Platform for Vehicle Positioning and Location Tracking
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Chapter 18
Thomas Watteyne, Mischa Dohler, Isabelle Augé-Blum, Dominique Barthel
This chapter deals with self-organization and communication for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). It shows that nodes do not always need to know... Sample PDF
Beyond Localization: Communicating Using Virtual Coordinates
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About the Contributors