A Logic Programming Based Framework for Intelligent Web Service Composition

A Logic Programming Based Framework for Intelligent Web Service Composition

Enrico Pontelli (New Mexico State University, USA), Tran Cao Son (New Mexico State University, USA) and Chitta Baral (Arizona State University, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 29
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-042-4.ch009
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Abstract

This chapter presents a comprehensive logic programming framework designed to support intelligent composition of Web services. The underlying model relies on the modeling of Web services as actions, each described by a logic programming theory. This view allows the use of logic-based planning to address the Web service composition problem, taking advantage of the fact that logic-based planning enables the elegant introduction of a number of extensions and generalizations (e.g., dealing with incomplete knowledge and preferences). The theory describing each Web service is encoded as a logic programming module, and different semantics are allowed within different modules, thus better reflecting the practical use of different service description formalisms and ontologies.
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Introduction

One of the main goals of the Semantic Web initiative (Berners-Lee, Hendler, & Lassila, 2001) is to extend the existing Web technology to support the development of intelligent agents, which can automatically and unambiguously process the information available in millions of Web pages. This led to numerous works on Web services and Web service composition. The primary goal of Web service composition is to determine an appropriate sequence of Web services to accomplish a user goal. The majority of the existing proposals dealing with Web service composition build on the principle of viewing Web services as actions, thus, representing the Web service composition problem as a planning problem that can be addressed using existing planning techniques. A second popular approach to Web service composition relies on techniques developed in the area of workflow development. The survey by Rao and Su (2004) provides a good overview of various proposals for Web service compositions.

McIlraith and Son (2002) propose to use GOLOG (Levesque, Reiter, Lesperance, Lin, & Scherl, 1997), a logic programming based language, for Web service composition. In such a proposal, each Web service is translated to a primitive action. GOLOG provides control-flow constructs, such as if-then-else, while-do, sequence (denoted by ‘;’), procedure, and test (denoted by ‘?’), which can be used to combine the primitive actions into programs. The resulting programs can be provided to a GOLOG interpreter for finding the sequence of Web services that need to be executed to achieve the goal of the user. Alternatively, the program can be given to an execution monitoring module, for direct execution. Sufficient conditions for a successful execution of a program are also provided. This direction of work has been adopted by Au, Kuter, and Nau (2005), Kuter, Sirin, Nau, Parsia, and Hendler (2005), and Wu, Parsia, Sirin, Hendler, and Nau (2003), where SHOP2, a hierarchical planning system, is used as the underlying system for automatic Web service composition. The latter work also addressed an important aspect of Web service composition, namely, the problem of incompleteness of information in Web service composition, by adding to the planning algorithm a module for gathering information during the planning process.

Viewing Web service composition as high-level planning is not only natural, but also advantageous for different reasons:

  • AI planning has made remarkable progress in the last 10 years, and several robust and scalable planning systems have been developed and are available for use, such as FF (Hoffmann & Nebel, 2001), SHOP (Nau, Cao, Lotem, & Muñoz-Avila, 1999), SAT-based planners (Kautz & Selman, 1996), and logic programming based planners (Lifschitz, 1999). All these planners can be used as the backbone in the development of systems for Web service composition with an architecture similar to the one described by McIlraith and Son (2002).

  • AI planning allows the Semantic Web research community to focus on the development of Web service representation and reasoning languages and tools for translating Web service representation into a planning language.

Indeed, this view of Web service composition has been embraced by many researchers, and a number of tools have been proposed, for example, translators to map Web services encoded using DAML-S or OWL-S to PDDL (PDDL Technical Committee, 1998), a well-known planning language used by many planning systems.

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Torbjørn Skramstad
Preface
Khaled M. Khan
Acknowledgment
Khaled M. Khan
Chapter 1
Ghita Kouadri Mostefaoui
The ultimate effectiveness in terms of quality achievements should be a key concern of systems built from Web services. To this end, in this chapter... Sample PDF
The Development, Testing, and Deployment of a Web Services Infrastructure for Distributed Healthcare Delivery, Research, and Training
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Chapter 2
Abdelghani Benharref, Mohamed Adel Serhani, Mohamed Salem, Rachida Dssouli
Web services are a new breed of applications that endorse large support from main vendors from industry as well as academia. As the Web services... Sample PDF
Multi-Tier Framework for Management of Web Services' Quality
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Chapter 3
Krishna Ratakonda
In this chapter we present an overview of research and development efforts across several different technical communities aimed at enabling... Sample PDF
Quality Models for Multimedia Delivery in a Services Oriented Architecture
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Chapter 4
Julio Fernández Vilas
Several open issues in Web services architecture are being solved by using different kinds of solutions. Standard high-availability techniques based... Sample PDF
Virtual Web Services: Extension Architecture to Alleviate Open Problems in Web Services Technology
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Chapter 5
Witold Abramowicz
The following chapter focuses on the problem of the proper definition of non-functional properties and methods that may be applied in order to... Sample PDF
Profiling of Web Services to Measure and Verify their Non-Functional Properties
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Chapter 6
Kyriakos Kritikos
As the Web service (WS) paradigm gains popularity for its promise to transform the way business is conducted, the number of deployed WSs grows with... Sample PDF
Enhancing the Web Service Description and Discovery Processes with QoS
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Chapter 7
Michael C. Jaeger, Matthias Werner
This chapter presents the definition of relevant terminology and a conceptual model of the basic terms. The chapter starts with the presentation of... Sample PDF
Web Services Dependability
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Chapter 8
Frederic Montagut, Refik Molva, Silvan Tecumseh Golega
Composite applications leveraging the functionalities offered by Web services are today the underpinnings of enterprise computing. However, current... Sample PDF
Transactional Composite Applications
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Chapter 9
Enrico Pontelli, Tran Cao Son, Chitta Baral
This chapter presents a comprehensive logic programming framework designed to support intelligent composition of Web services. The underlying model... Sample PDF
A Logic Programming Based Framework for Intelligent Web Service Composition
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Chapter 10
Daniel Brenner, Barbara Paech, Matthias Merdes, Rainer Malaka
For the foreseeable future, testing will remain the mainstay of software quality assurance and measurement in all areas of software development... Sample PDF
Enhancing the Testability of Web Services
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Chapter 11
Ghita Kouadri Mostefaoui, Zakaria Maamar, Nanjangud C. Narendra
This chapter presents our research initiative known as aspect-oriented framework for Web services (AoF4WS). This initiative looks into the role of... Sample PDF
Aspect-Oriented Framework for Web Services (AoF4WS): Introduction and Two Example Case Studies
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Chapter 12
Ty Mey Eap, Marek Hatala, Dragan Gaševic, Nima Kaviani, Ratko Spasojevic
The lack of intrinsic and user control in the identity management of today Internet security hampers the research in the area of Semantic Web and... Sample PDF
Open Security Framework for Unleashing Semantic Web Services
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Chapter 13
Vishal Dwivedi
This chapter underlines the importance of security service level agreements (SLAs) for Web services. As Web services are increasingly incorporated... Sample PDF
Providing Web Services Security SLA Guarantees: Issues and Approaches
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Chapter 14
Fatih Oguz
This chapter describes a research study with an objective to explore and describe decision factors related to technology adoption. The study... Sample PDF
Adoption of Web Services in Digital Libraries: An Exploratory Study
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Chapter 15
Bijoy Majumdar
Change is the only constant, and this concept holds good for services too. Service maintenance is the most tedious and longest phase of service... Sample PDF
Service Evolution and Maintainability
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Chapter 16
Pauline Ratnasingam
This chapter aims to examine the extent of Web services usage and quality, applying the balanced scorecard methodology in a small business firm as... Sample PDF
The Role of Web Services: A Balance Scorecard Perspective
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About the Contributors