Management, Monitoring, and Mining of Service Knowledge

Management, Monitoring, and Mining of Service Knowledge

Jay Ramanathan (Ohio State University, USA) and Rajiv Ramnath (Ohio State University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-276-3.ch008
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Abstract

There is consensus that explicit knowledge is information. In addition there is tacit knowledge that exists in the human minds. Tacit knowledge is applied unconsciously. It is a result of people \ Agents Interactions with each other and the environment. While explicit knowledge in the form of skills and competencies is normally acquired through training and Interaction, tacit knowledge is difficult to articulate. It is something that often cannot be expressed (Polyani 1966, Polyani 1996). Here we present various ways in which the creation and use of tacit knowledge can be assisted to become part of the Enterprise Knowledge Infrastructure to enable the BioS goals of the complex system.
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Introduction

How does knowledge management benefit the organization?

  • How is knowledge used in the delivery of services and to reduce Interaction costs?

  • What are the different aids to knowledge management?

  • How can knowledge be captured?

  • What processes and electronic tools enable the evolution of practice knowledge?

Knowledge is a “fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, and expert insight that provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information. It originates and is applied in the minds of knower. In organizations, it often becomes embedded not only in documents or repositories but also in organizational routines, processes, practices, and norms” (Davenport 1998). The business challenge for service-oriented organizations is to provide an environment within which knowledge is actively discovered, captured, shared, vetted, and delivered to improve the service. Since Knowledge is an asset, to what extent should investments be made in its management?

Knowledge discovery related to services is the process of discovering interesting, non-trivial patterns in information that help deliver more effectively. The discovery process targets Interactions and knowledge applied by Roles. Knowledge is often discovered by generating information from data while practicing. This type of reflective knowledge (Schon 1979) can be obtained by monitoring Interactions and by abstracting or mining non-trivial patterns (rules or associations for example) from the information. The discovery process can also be done using numerous methods and aids - visualization, data mining, statistics, neural networks, mathematical modeling and simulation, or even organizational processes. See Despres and Chauval 2000 for an overview.

Triage to Mine Organizational Knowledge: The CSC is the heart of any customer-focused service organization since here Requests are logged and prioritized, rules are applied for classification, initial assignments made, knowledge applied, and status monitored.

Triage knowledge is applied in the form of rules applied to Requests that come in through a single point of contact for the customer. These rules are often based on organizational knowledge and applied to provide the dynamic Interaction networking capability as we have seen with the 311 example in the previous chapter. Thus, the CSCs is a good place to capture and mine knowledge applied to provide services. The Interactions initiated by the CSCs also generate performance information which can be synthesized and mined for additional knowledge.

Nested Triages: The pattern underlying CSC is triage or broker. Thus the CSC | triage is a useful organization structure that can be repeatedly applied not just for larger organizations but also for smaller teams and groups relying on shared high-cost resources that take in many Requests from their own specific environment. These points of networking often begin to capture Requests, unusual requirements, frequently asked questions, etc. as well as the knowledge needed to service them.

Often a service organization with a CSC contains nested organizations each with their own CSCs. Sometimes this structure is implicit, but it nevertheless exists. For example, within the hospital enterprise, an emergency triage CSC uses specialist administrative desks and CSCs as well as IT CSC. The IT CSC in turn communicates with a technology CSC for support with equipment failure. The incoming Requests for different CSCs within an organization could thus be different – including the Requests for medical assistance, Requests for equipment repair, Requests for application program services or for product maintenance. Thus, the different CSCs become the ‘customer face’ for all the service providers (either for external or internal customers).

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgment
Jay Ramanathan, Rajiv Ramnath
Chapter 1
Jay Ramanathan, Rajiv Ramnath
We begin with a characterization of service challenges and a conceptualization of a complex service enterprise as a collection of organizations and... Sample PDF
Characterization of Service Orientation and the Adaptive Complex Enterprise
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Chapter 2
Jay Ramanathan, Rajiv Ramnath
The ACE structure for coordination across various services using policies to meet overall goals is presented here. The more detailed depiction of... Sample PDF
Adaptive Complex Enterprise Framework: Ontology, Modeling, Co-Engineering Principles, Work Products
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Chapter 3
Jay Ramanathan, Rajiv Ramnath
Governance and related alignment methods for the management of complex systems are introduced here to facilitate and better decision making. The... Sample PDF
Governance and Conceptual, Logical and Installed Architecture Alignment Using Work Products and Workflow
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Chapter 4
Jay Ramanathan, Rajiv Ramnath
The knowledge infrastructure for enterprise architecture presented here has a taxonomy of useful patterns and pattern applications illustrated in... Sample PDF
EA Knowledge for ACE Deployment
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Chapter 5
Jay Ramanathan, Rajiv Ramnath
Organizations like the City are pressured to be more and more service oriented with fewer resources. The City has an expanding service area... Sample PDF
Strategic Improvement of Non-Routine Services
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Chapter 6
Jay Ramanathan, Rajiv Ramnath
Vertical traceability along the internal value chain illustrated in Figure 1 below allows us to establish a charge back system for the use of IT... Sample PDF
Co-Engineering Business Need and IT Services
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Chapter 7
Jay Ramanathan, Rajiv Ramnath
The ACE structure is not only used to create BioS goals and work products, but also to perform the analysis needed to prioritize improvement... Sample PDF
Co-Engineering IT Services for Lean Operations
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Chapter 8
Jay Ramanathan, Rajiv Ramnath
There is consensus that explicit knowledge is information. In addition there is tacit knowledge that exists in the human minds. Tacit knowledge is... Sample PDF
Management, Monitoring, and Mining of Service Knowledge
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Chapter 9
Jay Ramanathan, Rajiv Ramnath
We explore how different types of opportunities for Interaction improvement - innovation, effectiveness, and resilience can be identified. Our goal... Sample PDF
Relating IT to Service Innovation
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Chapter 10
Jay Ramanathan, Rajiv Ramnath
The Adaptive Complex Enterprise framework presented provides a basis for integrating many related areas of research into a services discipline. We... Sample PDF
Research Topics in Complex Systems
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Appendix
Jay Ramanathan, Rajiv Ramnath
About the Authors