Mobile Positioning in Next Generation Networks

Mobile Positioning in Next Generation Networks

Peter Brida (University of Zilina, Slovakia), Peter Cepel (Siemens PSE s.r.o., Zilina, Slovakia) and Jan Duha (University of Zilina, Slovakia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-108-7.ch011
OnDemand PDF Download:


This chapter deals with mobile positioning in wireless heterogeneous next generation networks. Positioning process is analyzed and the chapter gives an overview of the basic positioning principles and methods that can be used in various NGN platforms. The main focus is given on cellular, ad hoc and sensor networks. Fundamental positioning methods are similar regardless of network platform. The difference usually lies in positioning accuracy. This is caused by technical parameters of the particular application platform. The end of the chapter deals with positioning experiments. The main purpose of authors is simple explanation of fundamental positioning principles for various NGN network platforms.
Chapter Preview

Positioning In Wireless Networks

The concept of positioning is not limited just to the geographic representation of physical location with sets of coordinates (latitude, longitude, and altitude). It is also applicable to symbolic location in a non-geographic sense, such as location in time or in a virtual information space, such as a data structure or the graph of a network.

Common to all notions of location is the concept that the individual locations are all relative to each other, meaning that they depend on a predefined frame of reference. This leads to a differentiation of the relative and absolute positioning (Tseng, Huang & Kuo, 2005).

If position information is used in reference to a geographic map or a global time reference, the context information can be extended. An absolute position is given with respect to an inertial system and a reference point in the inertial system. On the other side, a relative position can only be given with respect to other points resolving the distances and the geometric configuration, e.g., the topology.

When talking about physical location in the traditional way, points are usually viewed as three-dimensional coordinates [x; y; z] in a Cartesian reference coordinate system.

Usually, [x; y; z] coordinates by themselves are not meaningful for context-aware system services and the other information needs to be associated with this position information. In these cases, it is important to introduce the fourth dimension – time. If a time dimension is introduced, we are able to specify where and when a certain event took place resulting in sets of [x; y; z; t] for each position information. The four-dimensional fix can be used to put subsequent events into a context frame.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Weighted Proximity Positioning (WEP): This modified positioning method increases proximity accuracy by means of weighting data entering centroid proximity. The fundamental of WEP is increased influence of closer reference nodes at the expense of further nodes. WEP belongs to the group of range free positioning. Positioning using proximity measurements is popular, when low cost takes precedence in priority over accuracy.

Range Free Positioning: Category of positioning methods, which estimate the location of mobile devices (sensors, nodes or mobile stations) either by exploiting the radio connectivity information among neighboring mobile devices, or by exploiting the sensing capabilities of the mobile devices. The range free positioning methods are cost-effective solutions.

Geometric Algorithm (GA): The function of Geometric Algorithm (GA) is mobile device location estimation (with the highest probability) by means of calculation of lines of position intersection. The triangulation is used for calculation of the intersection.

Ad Hoc Network Positioning: Localization of mobile device (node) in ad hoc networks. Position estimation of mobile device is result of ad hoc networks positioning.

Network Based Positioning: Reference devices at one or more locations measure a signal originating from the localized device. These measurements are communicated to a central site where they are combined to give an estimate of the mobile device location. This position information can be used at the central site or sent to another system (application), which requires the location of given mobile device.

Range Based Positioning: The form of positioning it is based on the indirect measurements of distance or angle between sensors. The important thing to note is that the indirect measurements always have errors and individual measurements are not independent of each other. These measurements are strongly influenced by the surrounding environment and transmission system.

Mobile Based Positioning: A localized mobile device makes the appropriate signal measurements from geographically distributed reference devices, (e.g., base stations, reference nodes). These measurements are used to determine mobile device location. Computing operations are done in mobile device, e.g. Mobile Station (MS).

Adaptive Geometric Algorithm (AGA): The function of AGA is mobile device location estimation. The AGA is improvement of basic geometric algorithm. The AGA provides more accurate results compare with geometric algorithm.

Cellular Positioning: Localization of mobile devices in cellular networks. Position estimation of mobile device is result of cellular positioning.

Positioning Requirements: Basic requirements of a positioning system. These should be fulfilled for satisfied positioning. For example, the requirements include: maximum possible accuracy of the system; privacy protection, possibility to disable positioning in a case of assault.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Robert A. Walker, Drew Parker
Stavros Kotsopoulos, Konstantinos Ioannou
Chapter 1
Dzmitry Kliazovich, Michael Devetsikiotis, Fabrizio Granelli
The layering principle has been long identified as a way to increase the interoperability and to improve the design of telecommunication protocols... Sample PDF
Formal Methods in Cross Layer Modeling and Optimization of Wireless Networks: State of the Art and Future Directions
Chapter 2
Dimitris Toumpakaris, Jungwon Lee
This chapter presents an introduction to cross-layer scheduling and resource allocation for wireless systems and an overview of some of the... Sample PDF
Cross-Layer Resource Allocation and Scheduling for Wireless Systems
Chapter 3
Prashant Pillai
IP multicast mechanisms provide efficient bandwidth consumption and distribution of high volume contents such as audio/video streaming... Sample PDF
An AAA Framework for IP Multicast Communication in Next Generation Networks
Chapter 4
N. Merlemis, D. Zevgolis
This chapter is an introduction of the Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) technologies (such as Dense WDM and coarse WDM) and their recent... Sample PDF
Wavelength Division Multiplexing Technologies and their Applications
Chapter 5
Sotiris Karabetsos, Spiros Mikroulis, Athanase Nassiopoulos
The high capacity offered by the optical fiber, combined with the mobility and the flexibility of wireless access, either fixed or not, provides an... Sample PDF
Radio over Fiber for Broadband Communications: A Promising Technology for Next Generation Networks
Chapter 6
Konstantinos Birkos
High Altitude Stratospheric Platforms (HASPs) have gained much of attention from the scientific society and the communication industry in the recent... Sample PDF
High Altitude Stratospheric Platforms (HASPs)
Chapter 7
Dimitrios K. Lymberopoulos
The Next Generation Network (NGN) is a very complex environment, where various parties (network operators, services and application providers... Sample PDF
Test Template for Data Mining Publications
Chapter 8
Konstantinos S. Kotsopoulos
Next Generation Networks (NGNs) will accommodate heterogeneous architectures that need to be managed in order to provide services with high QoS to... Sample PDF
The Adoption of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) in Managing Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
Chapter 9
Ioannis Papapanagiotou, Georgios S. Paschos
The present chapter contains a thorough investigation of Quality of Service, Energy Conservation and mobility in 802.11 and 802.16 standards.... Sample PDF
A Case Study on the QoS, Energy Consumption and Mobility of WLANs and WMANs
Chapter 10
Panagiotis Kasimatis, Dimitra Varla
This chapter deals with the description of the various applied Mobile System Architectures, showing the evolution path towards the IP Convergence... Sample PDF
Mobile Telecom System Architectures—IMS an Evolution Path Towards IP Convergence
Chapter 11
Peter Brida, Peter Cepel, Jan Duha
This chapter deals with mobile positioning in wireless heterogeneous next generation networks. Positioning process is analyzed and the chapter gives... Sample PDF
Mobile Positioning in Next Generation Networks
Chapter 12
Anthony Ioannidis, Jiorgis Kritsotakis
Convergence in the communication industry is a reality – networks are being integrated, digital devices are being unified, and organizations seeking... Sample PDF
Converged Networks and Seamless Mobility: Lessons from Experience
Chapter 13
Costas Chaikalis, Felip Riera-Palou
Modern and future wireless communication systems such as UMTS and beyond 3G systems (B3G) are expected to support very high data rates to/from... Sample PDF
Efficient Receiver Implementation for Mobile Applications
Chapter 14
Apostolos Georgiadis, Carles Fernández Prades
Multi-antenna systems incorporating smart antenna techniques present numerous advantages compared to their single antenna counterparts including... Sample PDF
Novel Multi-Antenna and Smart Antenna Techniques for Next Generation Wireless Communication Networks
Chapter 15
Stelios A. Mitilineos, Christos N. Capsalis, Stelios C.A. Thomopoulos
Small-scale fading strongly affects the performance of a radio link; therefore radio channel simulation tools and models are broadly being used in... Sample PDF
Simulation of Small-Scale Fading in Mobile Channel Models for Next-Generation Wireless Communications
Chapter 16
Petros Karadimas
This chapter studies a composite stochastic model, in which the diffuse component arises from three dimensional (3-D) multipath scattering. That... Sample PDF
Stochastic Modeling of Narrowband Fading Channels with Three Dimensional Diffuse Scattering
Chapter 17
Anastasios Papazafeiropoulos
As a consequence of the growing interest in wireless communications systems, much effort is being devoted to the channel characterization and... Sample PDF
Channel Characterization and Modelling for Mobile Communications
Chapter 18
Fotis C. Kitsios, Spyros P. Angelopoulos, John Zannetopoulos
There is no doubt that e-government is a phenomenon of our era. E-business is becoming vital on the private sector as well as in the governmental... Sample PDF
Innovation and E-Government: An in Depth Overview on E-Services
Chapter 19
Spyros P. Angelopoulos, Fotis C. Kitsios, Eduard Babulak
Telecommunications and Internet Technologies have evolved dramatically during the last decade, laying a solid foundation for the future generation... Sample PDF
From E to U: Towards an Innovative Digital Era
Chapter 20
Fotis C. Kitsios
Nowadays that the world depends more and more in services, there is no issue more fundamental for service organizations than understanding the... Sample PDF
Service Innovation Management: New Service Development Strategies in the Telecommunication Industry Test Template for Data Mining Publications
Chapter 21
D. M. Emiris
Auctioning over Wireless Networks, constitutes an attractive emerging class for m-commerce applications and formulates a procurement negotiation... Sample PDF
The Expansion of E-Marketplace to M-Marketplace by Integrating Mobility and Auctions in a Location-Sensitive Environment: Application in Procurement of Logistics Services
Chapter 22
Achilles D. Kameas
This chapter describes a human centric approach for designing and deploying ubiquitous computing applications. These are considered as activity... Sample PDF
Deploying Ubiquitous Computing Applications on Heterogeneous Next Generation Networks
Chapter 23
Eduard Babulak, Konstantinos G. Ioannou, Athanasios Ioannou
Transportation and Internet Technologies have evolved dramatically during the last decade, laying solid foundation for the future generation of the... Sample PDF
Channel Management Schemes to Support Services in Ubiquitous Communications Infrastructures for Future Transportation Technologies
About the Contributors