A Model of Modeling in Research and Practice: Technology Integration and Online Career Counseling

A Model of Modeling in Research and Practice: Technology Integration and Online Career Counseling

Leping Liu (University of Nevada, Reno, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-739-3.ch047
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Abstract

Modeling is a tool that can be used in research and educational practices. In this chapter, modeling is defined as a systematic process in which scientific methods are used to identify and detect critical components in a field and the connections or relationship among them. This chapter focuses on the modeling procedures for research and practice in the field of using information technology in education and career counseling. Six types of modeling are included: theory-based modeling, literature-based modeling, databased modeling, case-based modeling, meta-analysis modeling, and propensity modeling. A model of the research modeling process is summarized at the end.
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Background

Definitions

The online Webster Dictionary (at http://www.m-w.com/) provides a list of definitions on the term “model.” A model is “a pattern of something to be made,” “a description or analogy used to help visualize something that cannot be directly observed,” or “a system of postulates, data, and inferences presented as a mathematical description of an entity or state of affairs.” Using a daily life example, if we say we want to build a house on the model of an old fashion farmhouse, that old farmhouse would be the model: its structure, style, shape, color, and all other components together formulate the “model.” In short, a model has its particular components, and the components connect to one another in a specific way.

In the present chapter, the term “modeling” is defined as the procedures to develop, formulate, and evaluate a new model. In the farmhouse example, the model is an existing model that has been developed before, and is available for people to use. However, it is much more complex to develop a new research model that accurately reflects the major components, methods, and findings from a study. Careful decisions need to be made on the types of model, methods of modeling, and context or research area the model might apply to. It may take years to complete the entire modeling procedures.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Literature-Based Modeling: Use literature as the information source to formulate a model that demonstrate the trends and issues of research and practice in a field.

Data-Based Modeling: Use quantitative data analysis methods to identify and examine a set of factors, and determine the connections among the factors.

Modeling: A systematic process in which scientific methods are used to identify and detect critical components in a field and the connections or relationship among them.

Meta-Analysis Modeling: Analyze research findings in the literature and formulate a model that may be used to guide further research and practice.

Case-Based Modeling: Use qualitative data or research findings to demonstrate a logic reasoning process of the experiences.

Theory-Based Modeling: Create a theoretical framework with major components aiming at the purpose of certain research and practice.

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