Modes of Openness and Flexibility in Cognitive Flexibility Hypertext Learning Environments

Modes of Openness and Flexibility in Cognitive Flexibility Hypertext Learning Environments

Rand J. Spiro (Michigan State University, USA), Brian P. Collins (Michigan State University, USA) and Aparna R. Ramchandran (Michigan State University, USA)
Copyright: © 2007 |Pages: 8
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-325-8.ch002
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Abstract

The words openness and flexibility—the latter is the topic of this volume—are joined in the title of this chapter. We see them as two sides of the same coin—structure and process, as well as antecedent and consequent. Closed structures of presentation (how instructional materials are organized in delivery systems) and of representation (how knowledge is structured and operated upon in the mind) produce rigidity of thought and action. The antithesis of this rigidity is a kind of “openness-based” flexibility necessary for adaptive knowledge application, for transfer of knowledge to new situations, for situation-sensitive use of knowledge, and for the kind of world-fitting complexity of understanding that cognitive flexibility depends upon—and that the increasingly complex modern world of life and work needs now more than ever. Rigidity and oversimplification are rampant in learning and teaching (e.g., Feltovich, Coulson, & Spiro, 2001; Feltovich, Spiro, & Coulson, 1989, 1996; Spiro, Feltovich, & Coulson, 1996), but with the affordances of new media, we do not need to live complacently with this state of affairs (Spiro, in press). The perspective of cognitive flexibility theory (CFT; Mishra, Spiro, & Feltovich, 1996; Spiro, Coulson, Feltovich, & Anderson, 1988, 2004; Spiro, Feltovich, Jacobson, & Coulson, 1992a, 1992b; Spiro & Jehng, 1990) enacts openness in many ways—in the theory itself and in the multimedia learning systems based on the theory (cognitive flexibility hypertext learning environments, CFHs). A recent overview of CFT can be found in Spiro, Collins, and Thota (2003).

Complete Chapter List

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Dedication
Table of Contents
Foreword
Michael Grahame Moore
Preface
Badrul H. Khan
Acknowledgments
Chapter 1
Badrul H. Khan
Advances in information technology, coupled with changes in society, have had a tremendous impact on our educational and training systems.... Sample PDF
Flexible Learning in an Open and Distributed Environment
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Chapter 2
Rand J. Spiro, Brian P. Collins, Aparna R. Ramchandran
The words openness and flexibility—the latter is the topic of this volume—are joined in the title of this chapter. We see them as two sides of the... Sample PDF
Modes of Openness and Flexibility in Cognitive Flexibility Hypertext Learning Environments
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Chapter 3
Jan Herrington, Ron Oliver, Anthony Herrington
In response to the growing influence of constructivism as a philosophical approach to learning, and a wide range of research studies investigating... Sample PDF
Authentic Learning on the Web: Guidelines for Course Design
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Chapter 4
Mercedes Fisher, Bonita Coleman, Paul Sparks, Cheryl Plett
Current learning theory suggests that collaboration is a key to effective learning. Perhaps it is no coincidence that collaborative online tools... Sample PDF
Designing Community Learning in Web-Based Environments
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Chapter 5
Karen L. Murphy, Yakut Gazi, Lauren Cifuentes
The growth of online coursework has introduced challenges for learners, instructors, and course designers involved in culturally and linguistically... Sample PDF
Intercultural Collaborative Project-Based Learning in Online Environments
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Chapter 6
Vanessa Paz Dennen, Curtis J. Bonk
Motivating online learners is a key challenge facing instructors in both higher education and corporate settings. Attrition rates and low... Sample PDF
We'll Leave the Light on for You: Keeping Learners Motivated in Online Courses
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Chapter 7
Kathleen Barclay
Online learning is taking part in one of the greatest instructional transformations since mass public education was introduced in America in the... Sample PDF
Humanizing Learning-at-Distance: Best Practice Guidelines for Synchronous Instructors
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Chapter 8
Nick Nissley
This chapter describes the evolution of storytelling in the workplace—from a face-to-face learning pedagogy to the use of storytelling as a... Sample PDF
Storytelling as a Web-Based Workplace Learning Pedagogy
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Chapter 9
Leo Tan Wee-Hin, R. Subramanian
Science centers are institutions for the promotion of informal science learning to students and the public (Oppenheimer, 1972; Danilov, 1982; Tan &... Sample PDF
Use of Virtual Exhibits for Promoting Science Learning on the Webs of Science Centers
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Chapter 10
Claus Witfelt
Flexible learning is a term usually connected with IT and the dimensions time and space, for instance when using CSCL-systems (e.g., Blackboard... Sample PDF
Flexible Online Learning - Onsite!
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Chapter 11
Gülsün Kurubacak, T. Volkan Yuzer
Gradually, more institutions around the globe are becoming involved in dynamic change over a long period to provide time- and location-independent... Sample PDF
Asynchronous Content Design for Flexible Learning: The Macro and Micro Level of Frameworks to Share Knowledge Online Between Professionals and Community
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Chapter 12
Jason D. Baker, Shauna Tonkin
By the time someone becomes a teacher, regardless of whether he or she enters the K-12 school system, higher education arena, or corporate training... Sample PDF
Online Faculty Proficiency and Peer Coaching
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Chapter 13
What Do They Learn?  (pages 135-145)
Carla R. Payne
Significant learning is marked by transformation in ways of thinking and in the making of meaning. As Winn (1997) put it: “Information is not... Sample PDF
What Do They Learn?
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Chapter 14
Diane M. Gayeski
While educational and corporate training environments have made large investments in getting wired to high-speed Internet connections, our work and... Sample PDF
Mobile Learning Technologies
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Chapter 15
Richard Caladine, Brian Yecies
Online learning or e-learning has had an impact on the way many institutions around the world provide opportunities for learning. For the past five... Sample PDF
Strategies for Sharing the TeMoTe: Changing the Nature of Online Collaboration
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Chapter 16
Ankush Mittal, Krishnan V. Pagalthivarthi, Edward Altman
The digitization of educational content is radically transforming the learning environment of the student. A single lecture, as well as supporting... Sample PDF
Integrating Multimedia Cues in E-Learning Documents for Enhanced Learning
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Chapter 17
Lorna Uden
“Usability rules the Web!” (Nielsen, 2000). It is very easy to recommend that a Web-learning application should be usable, but it is often a... Sample PDF
Interface Design for Web Learning
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Chapter 18
Linda L. Lohr, David A. Falvo, Erin Hunt, Ben Johnson
Navigating distance-learning environments can be a frustrating experience for users. Many find themselves confused about where they are, how they... Sample PDF
Improving the Usability of Distance Learning Through Template Modification
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Chapter 19
Susan M. Powers, Christine Salmon
Dr. Villez looks up from her papers and sighs as her e-mail beeps again for what seems the 100th time this morning with yet another incoming mail... Sample PDF
Management of the Learning Space
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Chapter 20
Joan D. McMahon
If you were to survey course syllabi on your campus, you would probably find the standard syllabi to include: • Course title and number •... Sample PDF
Ethical Issues in Web-Based Learning
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Chapter 21
Esko Kahkonen, Erkki Sutinen
As a result of the rapid development of information and communication technologies, educational software has become readily available in the global... Sample PDF
Moving Toward the Implementation of Contextualized Educational Technology
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Chapter 22
Thomas C. Reeves, John G. Hedberg
Evaluation falls into the category of those often neglected human practices such as exercise and eating right. All of us involved in education or... Sample PDF
Evaluation Strategies for Open and Distributed Learning Environments
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Chapter 23
Steven R. Terrell
Dringus and Terrell (1999) defined evaluation in an OLE as: …an iterative process for assessing the efficacy and validity of online learning... Sample PDF
Components of Effective Evaluation in Online Learning Environments
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Chapter 24
Chris Morgan, Jenny Bird
Flexible learning is now well entrenched in the policy, curriculum, and course delivery frameworks of many higher education sectors in the Western... Sample PDF
Flexible Assessment: Some Tensions and Solutions
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Chapter 25
Curtis J. Bonk, Robert A. Wisher, Matthew V. Champagne
Whether one is at conferences, responding to e-mail, or chatting with colleagues, the topic of e-learning is bound to prompt a discussion related to... Sample PDF
Toward a Comprehensive Model of E-Learning Evaluation: The Components
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Chapter 26
Betty Collis, Anoush Margaryan
Learning becomes more flexible when options are offered to learners, not only about the time and place and pace of learning, but also relating to... Sample PDF
Evaluating Flexible Learning in Terms of Course Quality
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Chapter 27
Linda Harasim
This chapter considers the unique opportunities for assessing online collaborative learning (OCL) in both formal (primary, secondary, and tertiary)... Sample PDF
Assessing Online Collaborative Learning: A Theory, Methodology, and Toolset
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Chapter 28
Maia T. Dimitrova
Flexible learning has many definitions, but it is typically used to describe the empowerment of the learner to choose when, how, and where to engage... Sample PDF
Evaluating the Flexibility of Learning Processes in E-Learning Environments
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Chapter 29
Badrul H. Khan, Laura J. Cataldo, Ruth Bennet, Salvatore Paratore
To create a successful flexible learning system, one with a flexible learning environment where learning is actively fostered and supported, a... Sample PDF
Obstacles Encountered by Learners, Instructors, Technical Support, and Librarians
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Chapter 30
Badrul H. Khan, Henry L. Smith
With the advent of the Internet and online learning methodologies and technologies, online learning is becoming more and more accepted. Institutions... Sample PDF
A Program Satisfaction Survey Instrument for Online Students
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