Advances in protein-protein interaction (PPI) detection technology and computational analysis methods have produced numerous PPI networks, whose completeness appears to depend on the extent of data derived from different PPI assay methods and the complexity of the studied organism. Despite the partial nature of human PPI networks, computational data integration and analyses helped to elucidate new interactions and disease pathways. The success of computational analyses considerably depends on PPI data understanding. Exploration of the data and verification of their quality requires basic knowledge of the molecular biology of PPIs and familiarity with the assay methods used to detect PPIs. Both topics are reviewed in this chapter. After introducing various types of PPIs the principles of selected PPI assays are explained and their limitations discussed. Case studies of the Wnt signaling pathway and splice regulation demonstrate some of the challenges and opportunities that arise from assaying and analyzing PPIs. The chapter is concluded with an extrapolation to human systems biology that offers a glimpse into the future of PPI networks.